u10ohnotes18f2005

u10ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 10 Solutions Solution Definitions...

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Unit 10: Solutions Solution Definitions solution : a homogeneous mixture -- evenly mixed at the particle level -- e.g., salt water alloy : a solid solution of metals -- e.g., bronze = Cu + Sn; brass = Cu + Zn solvent : the substance that dissolves the solute water salt soluble : “will dissolve in” miscible : refers to two gases or two liquids that form a solution; more specific than “soluble” -- e.g., food coloring and water Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolution 1. temperature As T o , rate 2. particle size As size , rate 3. mixing More mixing, rate 4. nature of solvent or solute
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2 Classes of Solutions aqueous solution : solvent = water water = “the universal solvent” amalgam : solvent = Hg e.g., dental amalgam tincture : solvent = alcohol e.g., tincture of iodine (for cuts) organic solution : solvent contains carbon e.g., gasoline, benzene, toluene, hexane Non-Solution Definitions insoluble : “will NOT dissolve in” e.g., sand and water immiscible : refers to two gases or two liquids that will NOT form a solution e.g., water and oil suspension : appears uniform while being stirred, but settles over time
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Molecular Polarity nonpolar molecules: -- e are shared equally -- tend to be symmetric e.g., fats and oils polar molecules: -- e NOT shared equally e.g., water “Like dissolves like.” polar + polar = solution nonpolar + nonpolar = solution polar + nonpolar = suspension (won’t mix evenly) Using Solubility Principles Chemicals used by body obey solubility principles. -- water-soluble vitamins : e.g., vit. C -- fat-soluble vitamins : e.g., vits. A, D Dry cleaning employs nonpolar liquids. -- polar liquids damage wool, silk -- also, dry clean for stubborn stains (ink, rust, grease) -- tetrachloroethylene is in common use
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emulsifying agent (emulsifier ): -- molecules w /both a polar AND a nonpolar end -- allows polar and nonpolar substances to mix e.g., soap detergent lecithin eggs soap vs. detergent -- made from animal and -- made from petroleum vegetable fats -- works better in hard water Hard water contains minerals w /ions like Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Fe 3+ that replace Na 1+ at polar end of soap molecule. Soap is changed into an insoluble precipitate (i.e., soap scum). micelle
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Fall '10 term at BYU.

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u10ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 10 Solutions Solution Definitions...

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