u11ohnotes18f2005

u11ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 11: Equilibrium / Acids and Bases...

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Unit 11: Equilibrium / Acids and Bases reversible reaction : R P and P R Acid dissociation is a reversible reaction. H 2 SO 4 2 H 1+ + SO 4 1– equilibrium: = -- looks like nothing is happening, however… -- system is dynamic, NOT static Le Chatelier’s principle : When a system at equilibrium is disturbed, it shifts to a new equilibrium that counteracts the disturbance. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) Disturbance Equilibrium Shift Add more N 2 …………………. . H 2 …………………. . NH 3 ………………… Remove NH 3 …………………. . Add a catalyst………………… no shift Increase pressure…………….
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2 Light-Darkening Eyeglasses AgCl + energy Ag o + Cl o (clear) (dark) Go outside… Sunlight more intense than inside light; “energy” shift to a new equilibrium: GLASSES DARKEN Then go inside… “energy” shift to a new equilibrium: GLASSES LIGHTEN In a chicken… CaO + CO 2 CaCO 3 (eggshells) In summer, [ CO 2 ] in a chicken’s blood due to panting. -- shift ; eggshells are thinner How could we increase eggshell thickness in summer? -- give chickens carbonated water [ CO 2 ] , shift -- put CaO additives in chicken feed [ CaO ] , shift
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Acids and Bases pH < 7 pH > 7 taste sour taste bitter react w /bases react w /acids proton (H 1+ ) donor proton (H 1+ ) acceptor turn litmus red turn litmus blue lots of H 1+ /H 3 O 1+ lots of OH 1– react w /metals don’t react w /metals Both are electrolytes . pH scale : measures acidity/basicity Each step on pH scale represents a factor of 10. pH 5 vs. pH 6 (10X more acidic) pH 3 vs. pH 5 (100X different) pH 8 vs. pH 13 (100,000X different)
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4 Common Acids Strong Acids hydrochloric acid: HCl  H 1+ + Cl 1– -- stomach acid; pickling : cleaning metals w /conc. HCl sulfuric acid: H 2 SO 4  2 H 1+ + SO 4 2– -- #1 chemical; (auto) battery acid nitric acid: HNO 3  H 1+ + NO 3 1– -- explosives; fertilizer Weak Acids acetic acid: CH 3 COOH  CH 3 COO 1– + H 1+ -- vinegar; naturally made by apples hydrofluoric acid: HF  H 1+ + F 1– -- used to etch glass citric acid, H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 -- citrus fruits; sour candy ascorbic acid, H 2 C 6 H 6 O 6 -- vitamin C lactic acid, CH 3 CHOHCOOH -- waste product of muscular exertion carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3 -- carbonated beverages
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-- H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 CO 3 (dissolves limestone, CaCO 3 ) Acid Nomenclature binary acids : acids w /H and one other element Binary Acid Nomenclature 1. Write “hydro.” 2. Write prefix of the other element, followed by “-ic acid.” HF hydrofluoric acid HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid hydroiodic acid HI hydrosulfuric acid H 2 S oxyacids : acids containing H, O, and one other element Common oxyanions (polyatomic ions that contain oxygen) that combine with H to make oxyacids: BrO 3 1– NO 3 1– CO 3 2– PO 4 3– ClO 3 1– SO 4 2– I O 3 1–
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6 Oxyacid Nomenclature Write prefix of oxyanion, followed by “-ic acid.” HBrO 3 bromic acid HClO 3 chloric acid
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u11ohnotes18f2005 - Unit 11: Equilibrium / Acids and Bases...

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