Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells - BiochemistryofCells Uses of Organic...

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Biochemistry of Cells
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Uses of Organic Molecules Americans consume an average of 140 pounds of sugar per person per year Cellulose, found in plant cell walls, is the most abundant organic compound on Earth
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Uses of Organic Molecules A typical cell in your body has about 2 meters of DNA A typical cow produces over 200 pounds of methane gas each year
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Water About 60-90 percent of an organism is water Water is used in most reactions in the body Water is called the universal solvent
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Water Properties Polarity Cohesivenes s Adhesiveness Surface Tension
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Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds
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Carbon is a Versatile Atom It has four electrons in an outer shell that holds eight Carbon can share its electrons with other atoms to form up to four covalent bonds
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Hydrocarbons The simplest carbon compounds … Contain only carbon & hydrogen atoms
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Carbon can use its bonds to:: Attach to other carbons Form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons
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Large Hydrocarbons: Are the main molecules in the gasoline we burn in our cars The hydrocarbons of fat molecules provide energy for our bodies
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Shape of Organic Molecules Each type of organic molecule has a unique three- dimensional shape The shape determines its function in an organism
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Functional Groups are: Groups of atoms that give properties to the compounds to which they attach Gained Electrons Lost Electrons
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Common Functional Groups
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Giant Molecules - Polymers Large molecules are called polymers Polymers are built from smaller molecules called monomers Biologists call them macromolecules
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Examples of Polymers Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids
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Most Macromolecules are Polymers Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers Nucleic Acid Monomer
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Linking Monomers Cells link monomers by a process called condensation or dehydration synthesis (removing a molecule of water) This process joins two sugar monomers to make a double sugar Remove H Remove OH H 2 O Forms
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Breaking Down Polymers Cells break down macromolecule s by a process called hydrolysis (adding a molecule of water) Water added to split a double sugar
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Macromolecules in Organisms There are four categories of large molecules in cells: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include: Small sugar molecules in soft drinks Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes
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Monosaccharides: Called simple sugars Include glucose, Have the same chemical, but different structural formulas C 6 H 12 O 6
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Monosaccharides Glucose is found in
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Biochemistry of Cells - BiochemistryofCells Uses of Organic...

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