Data,Metrics,Measurement - DATA DATA Metric System(SI...

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Unformatted text preview: DATA DATA Metric System (SI) Metric Taking Measurements Taking Organization Organization Presentation Presentation Data • Your data are all the seem to youwrong,gathered from an investigation. Sometimes the data records be have but even then, t are important and should be recorded accurately. • Theytypes of data collected depend on the activity. he • Remember that nature cannot be wrong, • Data may be a series of weights of volumes, a set of color changes, regardless of what you discover in the laboratory. or a list of scientific names. • Data that of the experimental error. • No matterseem to be “wrong” are probably the result must be treated which types of data are collected, all data carefully to ensure accurate results. Metric System Metric A decimal system of decimal measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of ___ ten Based on Based units of 10 units Metric System Kilo (k) = 1000 Hecta (h) = 100 Deka (D) = 10 Base = 1 Deci (d) = 0.1 Centi (c) = 0.01 Milli (m) = 0.001 The system is easy to use because it is based on multiples of 10 1 meter= 1000cm millimeters centimeter milligrams kilometer = milliliters liter = = = = 10 gram 10001000 meters kilogram1001000grams Measurement in Biology Measurement Scientists Scientists use a revised form of the metric system called Le Systeme International d’Unites d’Unites (International System (International of Units) or SI Units S.I. Base Units S.I. The International System of Units (S.I.) defines seven base units for the seven base quantities: Quantity Name Symbol length meter m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A thermodynamic temperature kelvin K luminous intensity candela cd amount of substance mole mol S.I. Base Units S.I. Length Length The distance from one point to The another another Meter – the SI unit of length Tool used to measure length Tool depends on the size of the object depends Frequently used SI units Larger objects millimeter (mm) = 1000 micrometers (µ m) Larger 1 (i.e. the room) – meter m 1 centimeter (cm) = 10 millimeters (mm) Length eter stick 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) Smaller objects (i.e. pencil length) Smaller 1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters (m) – centimeter ruler centimeter 1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 kilometers (km) Measuring Length Measuring Measure What the distance from Point A to B distance is Point A? Point B? 4.5 cm What 6.4 cm is the total distance between points? 6.4 cm – 4.5 cm = 1.9 cm Mass Mass The amount of matter in something Mass is measured using a balance or triple Mass beam balance beam Or an electronic balance Mass Mass The The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (kg) is The gram is the base The unit unit However, some However, measurements of mass like the mass of vitamins or medicines are so small that we use milligrams (mg) to measure their mass mass Frequently used SI units Mass 1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg) 1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g) 1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms (kg) Measuring Mass Measuring Measured What using a balance is the mass of this object? 175 g Area Area Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. The term can also be used in a nonmathematical context to be mean mathematical "vicinity". "vicinity". Surface area is the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object. areas Frequently used SI units Area 1 square meter (m2) = 10,000 square centimeters (cm2) 1 square kilometer (km2) = 1,000,000 square meters (m2) Measuring Area Measuring Area = Length x Width 1 cm The square has an area of 4 square centimeters (4 cm2) 1 cm Area = l x l2 2 cm 2 cm = 2 cm x 2 cm Area = 4 square centimeters (4 cm2) Measuring Area Measuring Calculate the area of the following rectangles 2 cm 3 cm cm 5 cm 8 cm Area = 2 cm X 5 cm Area = 10 cm2 Area = 3 cm X 8 cm Area = 24 cm2 Volume Volume The The amount of space a substance takes up substance Volume of a liquid is found Volume using a graduated cylinder using Unit Unit is liters (L) or milliliters (mL) (mL) Frequently used SI units Volume 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc) or (cm3) 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) or 1 dm3 Measuring Volume Measuring Liquid Liquid volume measured using graduated cylinder cylinder Read volume at Read meniscus ( downward meniscus curve of water) curve What is the volume of What this liquid? this 45 mL Measuring Volume Measuring Find the volume of these liquids 15 mL 16 mL 12.5 mL Volume Volume Volume Volume of a solid is found using the volume equation length x width x height In this equation, we are also multiplying the In units together so units for the volume of a solid are… volume m x m x m = m3 OR cm x cm x cm = cm3 Also know that 1 mL = 1 cm3 = 1 cc (cubic centimeter) centimeter) Measuring Volume Measuring Solid Solid volume measured using volume equation (l x w x h) equation What is the volume of a cube that is 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm? Volume = l1 x l2 x l3 = 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm Volume = 8 cubic centimeters (8 cm3) Measuring Volume Measuring Calculate the volume of the box Volume = l x w x h Volume = 6 mm X 5 mm X 2 mm 6 mm Volume = 60 mm3 2 mm 5 mm Water Displacement Water Some Some solid samples, such as an irregularly shaped rock cannot have their volume measured easily by using the volume equation (length x width x height) volume For these solids, scientists use a For technique called Water Displacement Water Displacement Water Steps of Water Displacement 1. Add water to a graduated cylinder and record its volume (ex: 7 ml) 2. Place the irregularly shaped solid into the graduated cylinder already containing water and record the new volume (ex: 9 ml) Water Displacement Water 3. Subtract the smaller volume (combined volume) from the larger volume (water only) to get the volume of the irregularly shaped solid. (ex: 9 ml – 7 ml = 2 ml) 4. We would say that the irregularly shaped solid takes up 2 ml of space. Since it is a solid, we need to state the volume using cm3 so we would say that its volume is 2 cm3 Water Displacement Volume = V2 – V1 Volume Volume = 30 – 20 20 Volume = 10 mL = 10 cm3 10 Temperature Temperature The The amount of heat in something something • Tool used to measure Tool temperature is a thermometer thermometer Celsius is the unit of Celsius measure in the metric system system Temperature Temperature SI SI unit for temperature is the Kelvin (K) Kelvin Notice Notice that there is no degree sign used! degree Kelvin scale is easier Kelvin for scientists to use for To calculate Kelvin To you add 273 to the Celsius temperature Celsius Ex. 23 ○C = 23 + 273 = Ex. 23 296 K 296 Reading a Thermometer Reading What’s the temperature? -5 -5 -5 -5 30 -10 -10 -10 -10 25 -15 -15 -15 -15 20 -14.0 ○C -14 ○C 24.5 ○C Reading a Thermometer Reading What’s the temperature? -5 -5 30 -10 -10 25 -15 -15 20 -14.0 ○C -14 ○C 24.5 ○C Time Time The period between 2 events The SI unit of time is the second (s) Measurement tool of time is a stopwatch Recording and Organizing Laboratory Data Laboratory •There are many ways to record and organize data, including: •data tables, charts, and graphs. •It is important to include the appropriate units when you record data. •Remember that DATA are measurements or observations, not merely numbers. •Data tables, graphs, and diagrams should have descriptive titles to ensure that another person can understand them without having been present during the investigation. Many important scientific discoveries have been made accidentally in the course of an often unrelated laboratory activity. Scientists who keep very careful and complete records sometimes notice unexpected trends in and relationships among data long after the work is completed. The laboratory notebooks of working scientists are studded with diagrams and notes; every step of every procedure is carefully recorded. Data Tables and Charts Data Data tables are probably the most common means of recording data. For example, if you data tables are on plant growthin labincluded both Although prepared collected data often provided that manuals, it is the length that youitbe able to construct your own. the amount of growth, important of time took for the plant to grow and The best way to do you could record a titledata in a data table shown below). a list of the this is to choose your for your table (as and them make types of data to be collected. This list will become the headings for your data columns. Plant Growth Data Time in Days Time Height of Plant (cm) 1 10 3 12 5 15 7 18 9 20 Example Data Table These data are the basis for all your later interpretations and analyses. You can always ask new questions about the data, but you cannot get new data without repeating the experiment. Ways to Record Data Ways Data Tables: Must have a Must title title Must include Must relevant data relevant Must have labeled Must columns columns Number of Flies on Meat per Day Day Number Number of Flies of 1 2 10 50 3 4 160 40 5 6 0 0 Graphs Graphs After After data are collected, you must determine how to display them determine One way of showing your results is to use a graph Three types of graphs are commonly used Pie (circle) graphs Line graphs Bar graphs Ways to Graph Data Pie Graph: Used to show how a part relates to the whole Used Needed to show percentages effectively NCHS’s Biology Ice Cream Survey Vanilla Chocolate Strawberry Raspberry Peach Neopolitan Other 21.0% 33.% 12.0% 4.0% 7.0% 17.0% 6.0% Ways to Graph Data Ways (Continued) (Continued) Line graph: used to used show change over time time Bar graph: used to used compare quantities compare in different categories Be sure to include: Title Axis labels Key Making a Line Graph Start with your data table Draw and Label Axes Independent Variable Submersion time (seconds) Dependent Variable Average height liquid rose (mm) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 Average height liquid rose (mm) Experimental Data Independent Variable on the x-axis Dependent Variable on the y-axis Submersion time (sec) Would help to know that this experiment Making a Line Graph Making (Continued) Experimental Data Independent Variable Submersion time (seconds) Dependent Variable Average height liquid rose (mm) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 11 14 14 15 16 17 19 Using your data table, write data pairs (10, 11) (15, 14) (20, 14) (25, 25) (30, 16) (35, 17) (40, 19) Making a Line Graph Making (Continued) Use your data pairs to determine the scales for the axes 2. Write Data Pairs (10, 11) (15, 14) (20, 14) (25, 25) (30, 16) (35, 17) (40, 19) Making a Line Graph (Continued) Start plotting your data pairs Making a Line Graph Making (Continued) After plotting data, draw a line “of best fit” Making a Line Graph Making (Continued) Complete the graph by summarizing its findings “As the length of time the paper towel was submerged increased, the height the liquid rose also increased.” Making a Bar Graph Making Again, Start with your data table Draw and Label Axes Making a Bar Graph (Continued) (Continued) Using your data table, write data pairs Making a Bar Graph (Continued) (Continued) Use your data pairs to determine the scales for the axes Making a Bar Graph Making (Continued) (Continued) Start plotting your data pairs Making a Bar Graph (Continued) (Continued) After plotting data, fill in bars Include a key if needed Water absorbed (mL) 36 32 28 24 20 16 A B C E D Brand of paper towel F Making a Bar Graph (Continued) (Continued) •Brands A and D were the most effective water absorbers. •The least effective absorber was Brand B. •Brands C, E, and F absorbed intermediate amounts of water. 36 Water absorbed (mL) Complete the graph by summarizing its findings 5. Summarize Trends 32 28 24 20 16 A B C E D Brand of paper towel F Graphing Review Graphing Purposes: Organize and analyze data Show patterns Communicate information Allow scientists to make predictions Components: Appropriate title Equal units on each axis with good use of spacing Labels on each axis including units Labels (example, mm, Neatly sec., kg.) created using a variety of color Types of Graphs Types Graph Review ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course BIO 110 taught by Professor Harmon during the Winter '11 term at BYU.

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