Unformatted text preview: DATA
DATA
Metric System (SI)
Metric
Taking Measurements
Taking
Organization
Organization
Presentation
Presentation Data
• Your data are all the seem to youwrong,gathered from an investigation.
Sometimes the data records be have but even then,
t
are important and should be recorded accurately.
• Theytypes of data collected depend on the activity.
he
• Remember that nature cannot be wrong,
• Data may be a series of weights of volumes, a set of color changes,
regardless of what you discover in the laboratory.
or a list of scientific names.
• Data that
of the experimental error.
• No matterseem to be “wrong” are probably the result must be treated
which types of data are collected, all data
carefully to ensure accurate results. Metric System
Metric
A decimal system of
decimal
measurement whose units are
based on certain physical
standards and
scaled on
multiples of ___
ten Based on
Based
units of 10
units Metric System Kilo (k) = 1000 Hecta (h) = 100 Deka (D) = 10 Base = 1 Deci (d) = 0.1 Centi (c) = 0.01 Milli (m) = 0.001 The system is easy
to use because it is
based on multiples
of 10
1 meter= 1000cm millimeters
centimeter milligrams
kilometer = milliliters
liter = = = = 10
gram 10001000 meters
kilogram1001000grams Measurement in Biology
Measurement Scientists
Scientists use a revised
form of the metric
system called
Le Systeme International
d’Unites
d’Unites
(International System
(International
of Units)
or SI Units S.I. Base Units
S.I.
The International System of Units (S.I.) defines seven
base units for the seven base quantities:
Quantity Name Symbol length meter m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A thermodynamic temperature kelvin K luminous intensity candela cd amount of substance mole mol S.I. Base Units
S.I. Length
Length The distance from one point to
The
another
another Meter – the SI unit of length Tool used to measure length
Tool
depends on the size of the object
depends
Frequently used SI units
Larger objects millimeter (mm) = 1000 micrometers (µ m)
Larger
1 (i.e. the room) – meter
m
1 centimeter (cm) = 10 millimeters (mm)
Length eter stick
1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) Smaller objects (i.e. pencil length)
Smaller 1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters (m)
– centimeter ruler
centimeter
1 lightyear = 9,460,000,000,000 kilometers (km) Measuring Length
Measuring Measure What the distance from Point A to B distance is Point A? Point B?
4.5 cm What 6.4 cm is the total distance between points?
6.4 cm – 4.5 cm = 1.9 cm Mass
Mass The amount of matter in something Mass is measured using a balance or triple
Mass
beam balance
beam Or an electronic balance Mass
Mass The
The SI unit for mass
is the kilogram (kg)
is The gram is the base
The
unit
unit However, some
However,
measurements of mass
like the mass of vitamins
or medicines are so small
that we use milligrams
(mg) to measure their
mass
mass Frequently used SI units
Mass 1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg)
1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g)
1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms (kg) Measuring Mass
Measuring Measured What using a balance is the mass of this object? 175 g Area
Area Area is a physical quantity expressing the
size of a part of a surface. The term can also be used in a nonmathematical context to be mean
mathematical
"vicinity".
"vicinity". Surface area is the summation of the
areas of the exposed sides of an object.
areas
Frequently used SI units
Area 1 square meter (m2) = 10,000 square centimeters (cm2)
1 square kilometer (km2) = 1,000,000 square meters (m2) Measuring Area
Measuring Area = Length x Width
1 cm The square has an area of 4 square
centimeters (4 cm2) 1 cm Area = l x l2
2 cm
2 cm = 2 cm x 2 cm
Area = 4 square centimeters (4 cm2) Measuring Area
Measuring Calculate the area of the following rectangles 2 cm 3 cm cm 5 cm
8 cm Area = 2 cm X 5 cm
Area = 10 cm2 Area = 3 cm X 8 cm
Area = 24 cm2 Volume
Volume The
The amount of space a
substance takes up
substance Volume of a liquid is found
Volume
using a graduated cylinder
using Unit
Unit is liters (L) or milliliters
(mL)
(mL) Frequently used SI units
Volume 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc) or (cm3)
1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) or 1 dm3 Measuring Volume
Measuring Liquid
Liquid volume measured using graduated
cylinder
cylinder Read volume at
Read
meniscus ( downward
meniscus
curve of water)
curve What is the volume of
What
this liquid?
this 45 mL Measuring Volume
Measuring Find the volume of these liquids 15 mL 16 mL 12.5 mL Volume
Volume Volume
Volume of a solid is found using the
volume equation length x width x height In this equation, we are also multiplying the
In
units together so units for the
volume of a solid are…
volume m x m x m = m3
OR
cm x cm x cm = cm3 Also know that 1 mL = 1 cm3 = 1 cc (cubic
centimeter)
centimeter) Measuring Volume
Measuring Solid
Solid volume measured using volume
equation (l x w x h)
equation
What is the volume of a cube
that is 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm?
Volume = l1 x l2 x l3
= 2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm
Volume = 8 cubic centimeters (8 cm3) Measuring Volume
Measuring Calculate the volume of the box
Volume = l x w x h
Volume = 6 mm X 5 mm X 2 mm 6 mm Volume = 60 mm3
2 mm
5 mm Water Displacement
Water Some
Some solid samples, such as an
irregularly shaped rock cannot have their
volume measured easily by using the
volume equation (length x width x height)
volume For these solids, scientists use a
For
technique called
Water Displacement Water Displacement
Water Steps of Water Displacement 1. Add water to a graduated
cylinder and record its volume
(ex: 7 ml) 2. Place the irregularly
shaped solid into the
graduated cylinder already
containing water and
record the new volume
(ex: 9 ml) Water Displacement
Water 3. Subtract the smaller volume
(combined volume) from the
larger volume (water only) to
get the volume of the irregularly
shaped solid.
(ex: 9 ml – 7 ml = 2 ml) 4. We would say that the irregularly shaped solid
takes up 2 ml of space. Since it is a solid, we
need to state the volume using cm3 so we would
say that its volume is 2 cm3 Water Displacement
Volume = V2 – V1
Volume
Volume = 30 – 20
20
Volume = 10 mL
= 10 cm3
10 Temperature
Temperature The
The amount of heat in
something
something
• Tool used to measure
Tool
temperature is a
thermometer
thermometer Celsius is the unit of
Celsius
measure in the metric
system
system Temperature
Temperature SI
SI unit for
temperature is the
Kelvin (K)
Kelvin Notice
Notice that there is no
degree sign used!
degree Kelvin scale is easier
Kelvin
for scientists to use
for To calculate Kelvin
To
you add 273 to the
Celsius temperature
Celsius Ex. 23 ○C = 23 + 273 =
Ex.
23
296 K
296 Reading a Thermometer
Reading What’s the temperature? 5 5 5 5 30 10 10 10 10 25 15 15 15 15 20 14.0 ○C 14 ○C 24.5 ○C Reading a Thermometer
Reading What’s the temperature?
5 5 30 10 10 25 15 15 20 14.0 ○C 14 ○C 24.5 ○C Time
Time The period between 2 events The SI unit of time is the second (s) Measurement tool of time is a stopwatch Recording and Organizing
Laboratory Data
Laboratory
•There are many ways to record and organize data, including:
•data tables, charts, and graphs.
•It is important to include the appropriate units when you record data.
•Remember that DATA are measurements or observations, not merely numbers.
•Data tables, graphs, and diagrams should have descriptive titles to ensure that
another person can understand them without having been present during the
investigation.
Many important scientific discoveries have been made accidentally in the
course of an often unrelated laboratory activity. Scientists who keep very
careful and complete records sometimes notice unexpected trends in and
relationships among data long after the work is completed. The laboratory
notebooks of working scientists are studded with diagrams and notes;
every step of every procedure is carefully recorded. Data Tables and Charts
Data
Data tables are probably the most common means of recording data.
For example, if you data tables are on plant growthin labincluded both
Although prepared collected data often provided that manuals, it is
the length that youitbe able to construct your own. the amount of growth,
important of time took for the plant to grow and The best way to do
you could record a titledata in a data table shown below). a list of the
this is to choose your for your table (as and them make
types of data to be collected. This list will become the headings for
your data columns. Plant Growth Data
Time in Days
Time Height of Plant (cm) 1 10 3 12 5 15 7 18 9 20 Example Data Table These data are the basis for all your
later interpretations and analyses. You can
always ask new questions about the data,
but you cannot get new data without repeating the experiment. Ways to Record Data
Ways
Data Tables: Must have a
Must
title
title
Must include
Must
relevant data
relevant
Must have labeled
Must
columns
columns Number of Flies
on Meat per Day
Day Number
Number
of Flies
of 1
2 10
50 3
4 160
40 5
6 0
0 Graphs
Graphs After
After data are collected, you must
determine how to display them
determine One way of showing your results
is to use a graph Three types of graphs are commonly used Pie (circle) graphs
Line graphs
Bar graphs Ways to Graph Data
Pie Graph:
Used to show how a part relates to the whole
Used
Needed to show percentages effectively
NCHS’s Biology Ice Cream Survey
Vanilla
Chocolate
Strawberry
Raspberry
Peach
Neopolitan
Other 21.0%
33.%
12.0%
4.0%
7.0%
17.0%
6.0% Ways to Graph Data
Ways
(Continued)
(Continued) Line graph: used to
used
show change over
time
time Bar graph: used to
used
compare quantities
compare
in different categories Be sure to include: Title Axis labels Key Making a Line Graph
Start with your data table Draw and Label Axes Independent
Variable
Submersion time
(seconds) Dependent
Variable
Average height
liquid rose (mm) 10
15
20
25
30
35
40 11
14
14
15
16
17
19 Average height
liquid rose (mm) Experimental Data
Independent Variable
on the xaxis
Dependent Variable
on the yaxis Submersion time (sec) Would help to know that this experiment Making a Line Graph
Making
(Continued) Experimental Data
Independent
Variable
Submersion time
(seconds) Dependent
Variable
Average height
liquid rose (mm) 10
15
20
25
30
35
40 11
14
14
15
16
17
19 Using your data table, write
data pairs
(10, 11)
(15, 14)
(20, 14)
(25, 25)
(30, 16)
(35, 17)
(40, 19) Making a Line Graph
Making
(Continued)
Use your data pairs to determine the scales for the axes
2. Write Data Pairs
(10, 11)
(15, 14)
(20, 14)
(25, 25)
(30, 16)
(35, 17)
(40, 19) Making a Line Graph
(Continued)
Start plotting your data pairs Making a Line Graph
Making
(Continued)
After plotting data, draw a line “of best fit” Making a Line Graph
Making
(Continued) Complete the graph by
summarizing its findings
“As the length of time the paper towel
was submerged increased, the height
the liquid rose also increased.” Making a Bar Graph
Making
Again, Start with your data table Draw and Label Axes Making a Bar Graph
(Continued)
(Continued)
Using your data table,
write data pairs Making a Bar Graph
(Continued)
(Continued)
Use your data pairs to determine the scales for the axes Making a Bar Graph
Making
(Continued)
(Continued)
Start plotting your data pairs Making a Bar Graph
(Continued)
(Continued)
After plotting data, fill in bars Include
a key if
needed Water absorbed (mL) 36
32
28
24
20
16
A B C E
D
Brand of paper towel F Making a Bar Graph
(Continued)
(Continued) •Brands A and D were the most
effective water absorbers.
•The least effective absorber
was Brand B.
•Brands C, E, and F absorbed
intermediate amounts of water. 36
Water absorbed (mL) Complete the graph
by summarizing its
findings 5. Summarize Trends 32
28
24
20
16
A B C E
D
Brand of paper towel F Graphing Review
Graphing Purposes: Organize and analyze data Show patterns Communicate information Allow scientists to make predictions Components: Appropriate title Equal units on each axis with good use of spacing Labels on each axis including units
Labels (example, mm, Neatly sec., kg.) created using a variety of color Types of Graphs
Types
Graph Review ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course BIO 110 taught by Professor Harmon during the Winter '11 term at BYU.
 Winter '11
 Harmon

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