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enzyme ppt - Enzymes 1 What Are Enzymes • Most enzymes...

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Unformatted text preview: Enzymes 1 What Are Enzymes? • Most enzymes are Proteins (tertiary and quaternary structures) • Act as Catalyst to Catalyst accelerates a reaction • Not permanently changed in the process 2 Enzymes • Are specific for what they will catalyze catalyze • Are Reusable Reusable • End in –ase -Sucrase -Lactase -Maltase 3 How do enzymes Work? Enzymes work by weakening bonds which bonds lowers activation energy energy 4 Enzymes Without Enzyme With Enzyme Free Energy Free energy of activation Reactants Products Progress of the reaction 5 6 Enzyme-Substrate Complex The substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate Substrate Joins Enzyme 7 Active Site • A restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate. Active Site Substrate Enzyme 8 Induced Fit • A change in the shape of an shape enzyme’s active site • Induced by the Induced substrate 9 Induced Fit • A change in the configuration of an change configuration enzyme’s active site (H+ and ionic enzyme’s bonds are involved). • Induced by the substrate. substrate substrate Active Site Enzyme induced fit 10 What Affects Enzyme Activity? • Three factors: 1. Environmental Conditions 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes 3. Enzyme Inhibitors 11 1. Environmental Conditions 1. Extreme Temperature are the most 1. dangerous dangerous - high temps may denature (unfold) the high enzyme. enzyme. 2. pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral) 3. Ionic concentration (salt ions) 12 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes • Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and Inorganic (zinc, vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need vitamins for proper enzymatic activity. enzymatic • Example: Iron must be present in the quaternary structure - hemoglobin in order for it to structure hemoglobin up oxygen. up pick 13 Two examples of Enzyme Two Inhibitors Inhibitors a. Competitive inhibitors: are a. Competitive chemicals that resemble an resemble enzyme’s normal substrate and enzyme’s compete with it for the active site. compete active Substrate Enzyme Competitive inhibitor 14 Inhibitors b. Noncompetitive inhibitors: Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site. Substrate active site altered Enzyme Noncompetitiv e Inhibitor 15 16 ...
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