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Unformatted text preview: Forensics
Forensic Science Criminology Criminalistics is the use of science to examine and compare of evidence (like fingerprints, shoeprints, and tire tracks), drugs, and firearms in criminal investigations Forensic Specialties
Forensic accounting is the
study of accounting evidence.
Forensic anthropology is
physical anthropology in a
legal setting, usually for
identification of skeleton
Forensic economics is the
study of economic damage
evidence to include
calculations of lost earnings,
the lost value of business, lost
profits, lost value of service,
replacement costs and medical
costs. Forensic Specialties (contd.) Forensic engineering studies the causes of
failure of devices and
structures. Forensic entomology
deals with the of insects
in, on, and around human
remains to help
determine the time and
location of death. Forensic evidence deals
with evidence from a
crime scene. Forensic Specialties (contd.)
Forensic Specialties (contd.) Forensic epistemology deals with philosophical knowledge for understanding behavior of states.
Forensic odontology is the study of the study of teeth.
Forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry deal with human behavior. Forensic Specialties (contd.) Forensic toxicology studies of the effect of drugs and poisons on the body.
Forensic Ballistics deal with the use of firearms and ammunition.
Questioned document examination is the study of evidence that takes the form of document. Forensic History
Forensic The "Eureka" legend of Archimedes can
be considered an early account of the use
of forensic science. In this case, by
principles of water displacement,
Archimedes was able to prove that a
crown was not made of gold.
The earliest account of fingerprint use for
identity was during the 7th century.
According to an Arabic merchant,
fingerprints were on to a bill, which would
then be given to the lender. This bill was
recognized as proof.
The first written account of using medicine
and entomology to solve criminal cases is
in to a book written in China. In one case
of a person murdered with a sickle was
solved by an investigator who instructed
everyone to bring their sickles to one
location. Flies gathered on one sickle. The
murderer then confessed.
murderer In Europe, medical practitioners in the
army began to gather information on
cause of death. A army surgeon, studied
the effects of death on internal organs.
Two surgeons figured out pathology by
studying the body after disease. Writings
on these topics began to appear. by a
French physician, and by a German
Two early examples of forensic science
demonstrates the increasing use of logic in
criminal investigations. In 1784 in
Lancaster, John Toms was tried and
convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw
with a pistol. When the body of Culshaw
was examined, a pistol wad found in his
head wound matched perfectly with a torn
newspaper found in Toms' pocket. In
Warwick, a laborer was tried and convicted
of the murder of a young maid. She had
been drowned in a pool and had the marks
of violent assault. The police found
footprints and an impression of cloth with a
patch in the damp earth near the pool. The
breeches of a laborer who had been
nearby were examined and matched the
impression in the earth.
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- Winter '11