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Macromolecules1 - Macromolecule s copyright cmassengale 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Macromolecule s copyright cmassengale 1 Organic Compounds • Compounds that contain CARBON are called organic. • Macromolecules are large organic organic molecules. molecules copyright cmassengale 2 Carbon (C) • Carbon has 4 electrons in outer electrons shell. • Carbon can form covalent bonds covalent with as many as 4 other atoms (elements). • Usually with C, H, O or N. C, • Example: CH4(methane) copyright cmassengale 3 Macromolecules • Large organic molecules. • Also called POLYMERS. POLYMERS • Made up of smaller “building blocks” called MONOMERS. MONOMERS • Examples: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) copyright cmassengale 4 Question: How Are How Macromolecule Macromolecule s Formed? copyright cmassengale 5 Answer: Dehydration Synthesis • Also called “condensation reaction” “condensation • Forms polymers by combining polymers monomers by “removing water”. monomers “removing HO H HO H H2O HO H copyright cmassengale 6 Question: How are Macromolecules separated or digested? digested? copyright cmassengale 7 Answer: Hydrolysis Answer: Hydrolysis • Separates monomers by “adding monomers water” water” HO H H2O HO H copyright cmassengale HO H 8 Carbohydrates copyright cmassengale 9 Carbohydrates • Small sugar molecules to large sugar molecules. sugar • Examples: A. monosaccharide B. disaccharide C. polysaccharide copyright cmassengale 10 Carbohydrates Monosaccharide: one sugar unit Examples: glucose glucose (C6H12O6) deoxyribose ribose Fructose Galactose copyright cmassengale 11 Carbohydrates Disaccharide: two sugar unit Examples: Examples: – Sucrose (glucose+fructose) – Lactose (glucose+galactose) – Maltose (glucose+glucose) glucose glucose copyright cmassengale 12 Carbohydrates Polysaccharide: many sugar units Examples: starch (bread, potatoes) glycogen (beef muscle) cellulose (lettuce, corn) glucose glucose glucose glucose glucose glucose copyright cmassengale glucose cellulose glucose 13 Lipids copyright cmassengale 14 Lipids • General term for compounds which are not soluble in water. not • Lipids are soluble in hydrophobic solvents. solvents • Remember: “stores the most energy” “stores • Examples: 1. Fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Oils 4. Waxes 5. Steroid hormones copyright cmassengale 6. Triglycerides 15 Lipids Six functions of lipids: 1. Long term energy storage Long energy 2. Protection against heat loss Protection (insulation) (insulation) 3. Protection against physical shock 4. Protection against water loss 5. Chemical messengers (hormones) 6. Major component of membranes Major (phospholipids) (phospholipids) copyright cmassengale 16 Lipids Triglycerides: composed of 1 glycerol and 3 glycerol fatty acids. fatty H = O H-C----O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 O H-C----O C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 O fatty acids H-C----O C-CH -CH -CH -CH = 2 2 2 CH - CH H 2 -C H2C H2C Hglycerol 2C H = = copyright cmassengale 3 17 Fatty Acids There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see these on food labels: = 1. Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds (bad) (bad) O saturated C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 = 2. Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds (good) (good) O unsaturated C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH=C H -C H 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 copyright cmassengale -CH 2 -CH 3 18 Proteins copyright cmassengale 19 Proteins (Polypeptides) • Amino acids (20 different kinds of aa) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides). • Six functions of proteins: 1. Storage: albumin (egg white) 2. Transport: hemoglobin Transport: hemoglobin 3. Regulatory: hormones 4. Movement: muscles 5. Structural: membranes, hair, nails 6. Enzymes: cellular reactions copyright cmassengale 20 Proteins (Polypeptides) Four levels of protein structure: A. Primary Structure B. Secondary Structure Secondary C. Tertiary Structure C. Tertiary D. Quaternary Structure D. Quaternary copyright cmassengale 21 Primary Structure Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds (straight chains) chains) Amino Acids (aa) aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 Peptide Bonds copyright cmassengale 22 Secondary Structure • 3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats primary coils pleats held together by hydrogen bonds. hydrogen • Two examples: Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet Hydrogen Bonds copyright cmassengale 23 Tertiary Structure • Secondary structures bent and folded bent folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement of more linked polypeptides • Bonds: H-bonds, ionic, disulfide bridges Bonds: (S-S) (S-S) • Call a “subunit”. “subunit”. Alpha Helix Beta Pleated Sheet copyright cmassengale 24 Quaternary Structure • Composed of 2 or more “subunits” • Globular in shape • Form in Aqueous environments • Example: enzymes (hemoglobin) enzymes subunits copyright cmassengale 25 Nucleic Nucleic Acids Acids copyright cmassengale 26 Nucleic acids • Two types: a. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNAdouble helix) b. Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand) • Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of Nucleic nucleotides linked by dehydration dehydration synthesis. synthesis copyright cmassengale 27 Nucleic acids • Nucleotides include: phosphate group pentose sugar (5-carbon) nitrogenous bases: adenine (A) thymine (T) DNA only uracil (U) RNA only cytosine (C) guanine (G) copyright cmassengale 28 Nucleotide Phosphate Group Group O O=P-O O 5 CH2 O N C 1 C4 Sugar Sugar (deoxyribose) C3 C 2 copyright cmassengale Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) (A, 29 DNA - double helix O 5 3 P 5 3 O O C G 1 P 5 3 2 4 4 2 3 P 1 T 5 A P 3 O O P 5 O 3 copyright cmassengale 5 P 30 copyright cmassengale 31 ...
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