Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton - Phytoplankton are the plant­ like...

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Unformatted text preview: Phytoplankton are the plant­ like organisms of the sea that carry out photosynthesis and float in the upper areas of the world’s oceans. Most of the ocean is Most of the ocean is too deep for plants to attach to the bottom like this Giant Kelp off the coast of California. Therefore, most of the Therefore, most of the photosynthesis is carried out by microscopic single celled organisms or chains of single cells. These organisms often These organisms often have long projections to increase their surface area or oils to keep them in the photic zone. Diatoms are dominant Diatoms are dominant members of the phytoplankton that can be caught in a net. They are especially They are especially common in temperate , coastal and polar regions. They have sculptured They have sculptured shells, or frustules, made of silica. Diatoms can come in a variety of shapes. More Diatom Shapes More Diatom Shapes Life Cycle of a Diatom Life Cycle of a Diatom Fish Killer Fish Killer Some diatoms, like this one can kill fish when found in large numbers The glasslike The glasslike projections cause mucus to build up in the fish’s gill which can lead to the fish's death. Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates are found Dinoflagellates are found throughout the world’s oceans, but tend to prefer warmer areas. Given nutrients, dinoflagellates can bloom or explosively grow to huge numbers sometimes causing RED TIDES Dinoflagellates: red tides Florida red tide organism: Gymnodinium breve Aro und 6 0 s p e c ie s A ro o f Dino fla g e lla te s a re kno wn to c a us e re d tid e s . A fe w s p e c ie s p ro d uc e p o is o ns th a t a re a m o ng th e m o s t p o we rful na tura l to xins kno wn. During a re d tid e , During d ino fla g e lla te s m a y p o is o n th e wa te rs , turning th e s urfa c e into a s e a o f d e a d fis h . R e d tid e s c a n a ls o th re a te n h um a n h e a lth . Mus s e ls , c la m s Mus a nd o th e r b iva lve s s to re th e to xins a s th e y filte r fe e d . P e o p le wh o e a t th e s h e llfis h c a n g e t Paralytic Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. Poisoning. Vic tim s s uffe r Vic num b ne s s a nd ting ling , lo s s o f b a la nc e , s lurre d s p e e c h , a nd in e xtre m e c a s e s , p a ra ly s is a nd d e a th ! Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Some dinoflagellates like Zooxanthellae, are symbiotic with corals or jellyfish. Coccolithophorids Coccolithophorids Coccolithophorids are Coccolithophorids are common members of the nanoplankton. Most are too small to be taken in a regular plankton net. Though found in Though found in coastal waters, they do best in open oceans where they often far outnumber all other types of phytoplankton. These single celled These single celled organisms are covered by plates made of calcium carbonate. Silicoflagellates Silicoflagellates Because of there small Because of there small size, very little is known about silicoflagellates except that they can be very important to the primary production in the world’s oceans. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course BIO 110 taught by Professor Harmon during the Winter '11 term at BYU.

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