Scientific Method

Scientific Method - Scientific Method Scientific Steps in...

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Unformatted text preview: Scientific Method Scientific Steps in the Scientific Method Method Observation Hypothesis Experiment Data Collection Conclusion Retest Observations Observations Gathered Gathered through your senses senses A scientist scientist notices something in their natural world world Observations Observations An example of an An example observation might observation be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails straight, Hypothesis Hypothesis A suggested suggested solution to the problem. problem. Must be testable Must testable Sometimes written Sometimes as If…Then… If…Then… statements statements Predicts an outcome outcome Hypothesis Hypothesis An example of a An hypothesis might hypothesis be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live. Experiment Experiment A procedure procedure to test the test hypothesis. hypothesis. Experiment Experiment Variable – factor in the experiment that is being tested tested Experiment Experiment A good or good “valid” experiment will only have ONE variable! variable! Controls and Variables Controls Scientific Experiments Follow Rules Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens. The Control Variable The The experimenter makes a The special effort to keep other factors constant so that they factors will not effect the outcome. will Those factors are called control variables. control What is the Purpose of a Control? Control? Controls are NOT being tested Controls are used for COMPARISON Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable. The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable. Example of Controls & Variables Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself. What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Your Varying the route is the Varying independent variable independent The time it takes is the The dependent variable dependent Keeping the same walker Keeping throughout makes the walker a control variable. control One more thing… it is best to make several trials with each independent variable. Valid Experiments Valid Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Experiment: Two groups are required --the control & experimental groups There should be only one variable Data Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative Data Data Must be organized Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs Conclusion Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment Retest Retest In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested. Review Review Solving a Problem Solving 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem 3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (if…then…) 4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis 5) Collect Data 6) Form a Conclusion 7) Retest ...
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