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Water Properties

Water Properties - The Chemistry of Life Properties of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Chemistry of Life Properties of Water copyright cmassengale The Water Molecule • Neutral Charge – ZERO • Have no charge • Have an Equal number of p+ and e• Charges aren’t evenly distributed copyright cmassengale The Water Molecule The • Polarity – A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and electrons hydrogen atoms. (+) (-) copyright cmassengale Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen • Polar water molecules act like magnets Polar act and attract each other • Hydrogen Bonds – The attraction of the Hydrogen end The (+) of one molecule for the Oxygen end (-) of another water molecule. (-) • They are strong bonds that form They between molecules (CO2, H2O, …) between copyright cmassengale Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen copyright cmassengale Cohesion Cohesion • The attraction between molecules of the same substance (e.g. water). • H2O attracting other attracting H2O molecules • Allows some insects and spiders to walk on water. copyright cmassengale Adhesion & Capillarity Adhesion • Adhesion - Attraction between H2O molecules and different molecules molecules • Cohesion & adhesion produce Capillarity (upward movement against Capillarity gravity of water through small tubes) gravity Question: How do Question: plants make use of Capillarity? Capillarity? copyright cmassengale Solutions & Suspensions Solutions • Water is usually part of a mixture. Water mixture • Because so many things dissolve Because in water, it is called the Universal Solvent Solvent • There are two types of mixtures: – Solutions – Suspensions copyright cmassengale Properties of Solutions Properties • Ionic compounds disperse as ions in ions water (+ions & -ions spread out among polar water molecules) polar • Solutions are Evenly distributed Solutions Evenly mixtures mixtures • SOLUTE – Substance that is being dissolved • SOLVENT – Dissolving Substance for the solute copyright cmassengale Ionic Solutions Ionic Na+ ions will be attracted to WHAT END of the water molecule? copyright cmassengale Suspensions Suspensions • Substances that Substances don’t dissolve but separate into tiny pieces. pieces. • Water keeps the Water pieces suspended pieces so they don’t settle out. out. • Blood & Blood Cytoplasm are Cytoplasm suspensions copyright cmassengale suspensions Acids, Bases & pH Acids, • 1 water molecule in 550 million water naturally dissociates into a Hydrogen Ion and a Hydroxide Ion Ion Hydroxide H2O H + OH + Hydrogen Ion Hydrogen - Hydroxide Ion Acid copyright cmassengale Base Base The pH Scale The • Indicates the concentration of H+ ions • Ranges from 0 – 14 • pH of 7 is neutral • pH 0 up to 7 acid … H+ • pH above 7 to 14 base… OH• Each pH unit represents a factor of 10X change in concentration How much stronger is a pH3 than a pH of How 5? copyright cmassengale 5? Acids Acids • Strong Acid = pH 1-3 • High in H+ ions • Lower number of OH- ions copyright cmassengale Bases Bases • Strong Base = pH 11 – 14 • High in OHions • Lower in number of H+ ions copyright cmassengale Buffers Buffers • Weak acids or bases that react with strong acids or bases with • Made by the body • Prevent sharp, sudden changes in Prevent pH (keep pH neutral) (keep Weak Acidcopyright cmassengale Weak Base copyright cmassengale ...
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