History of Mgmt

History of Mgmt - Module.qxp 1:53 PM Page 252 MODULE...

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In The Evolution of Management Thought, Daniel Wren traces management as far back as 5000 B . C ., when the ancient Sumerians used written records to assist in gov- ernmental and commercial activities. 1 Management was important to the construc- tion of the Egyptian pyramids, the rise of the Roman Empire, and the commercial success of fourteenth-century Venice. By the time of the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s, great social changes helped prompt a great leap forward in the manufac- ture of basic staples and consumer goods. Industrial change was accelerated by Adam Smith’s ideas of mass production through specialized tasks and the division of labor. By the turn of the twentieth century, Henry Ford and others were making mass production a mainstay of the modern economy. Since then, the science and practices of management have been on a rapid and continuing path of develop- ment. The legacies of this rich history of management can be understood in the fol- lowing framework: j The classical approaches that focus on developing universal principles for use in various management situations j The human resource approaches that focus on human needs, the work group, and the role of social factors in the workplace j The modern approaches that focus on the systems view of organizations and contingency thinking in a dynamic and complex environment C L ASSICAL A PPR O A CHES The three branches of the classical approach to management are (1) scientific man- agement, (2) administrative principles, and (3) bureaucratic organization. The clas- sical approaches (see Figure A.1 ) generally assume that people at work act in a rational manner that is primarily driven by economic concerns. Workers are expected to rationally consider opportunities made available to them and do what- ever is necessary to achieve the greatest personal and monetary gain. 2 SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT In 1911, Frederick W. Taylor published The Principles of Scientific Management, in which he makes the following statement: “The principal object of management 252 M O D U L E Historical Foundations of Management
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should be to secure maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the max- imum prosperity for the employee.” 3 Taylor, often called the “father of scientific management,” noticed that many workers did their jobs their own way and without clear and uniform specifications. He believed that this caused them to lose effi- ciency and perform below their true capacities. He also believed that this problem could be corrected if workers were taught and then helped by supervisors to always perform their jobs in the right way. Taylor used the concept of “time study” to analyze the motions and tasks required in any job and to develop the most efficient ways to perform them. He then linked these job requirements with both training for the worker and a system- atic management approach in which supervisors offered proper direction, support, and monetary incentives. Taylor’s four principles of
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History of Mgmt - Module.qxp 1:53 PM Page 252 MODULE...

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