Chapter 3 - Biology and Behavior How Children Develop (3rd...

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Biology and Behavior How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Chapter 3
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Overview I. Nature and Nurture II. Brain Development III. The Body: Physical Growth and Development
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I. Nature and Nurture A. Genetic and Environmental Forces B. Behavior Genetics
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A. Nature and Nurture Both heredity and environment influence individuals’ characteristics. When scientists first began to investigate the contributions of heredity and environment, they generally emphasized one factor or the other as the prime influence. Recent efforts to map the human genome established that individuals differ from one another by only about 1 to1.5% of their genes.
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1. Genetic and Environmental Influences The interplay between genes and experience is very complex. This model of hereditary and environmental influences can help to simplify this interplay.
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Three Key Elements of the Model Genotype: the genetic material an individual inherits Phenotype: the observable expression of the genotype, including body characteristics and behavior Environment: includes every aspect of the individual, and his or her surroundings, other than genes
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Four Fundamental Relations Parents’ Genotype Parents’ Genotype Child’s Genotype Child’s Genotype Child’s Environment Child’s Environment Child’s Phenotype Child’s Phenotype
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Relation 1: Parents’ and Child’s Genotypes Genetic material is passed on as chromosomes —long, threadlike molecules made up of DNA Genes are sections of chromosomes that are the basic units of heredity for all living things
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Sex Determination Sex chromosomes determine an individual’s sex. Females have two X chromosomes in the 23 rd pair, whereas males have an X and a Y chromosome. A gene on the Y chromosome encodes the protein that triggers the formation of the testes, which subsequently produce testosterone, which in turn takes over the molding of maleness.
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Diversity and Individuality Mutations: changes in sections of DNA caused by random or environmental factors Random assortment: the shuffling of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the sperm and egg; chance determines which member of the pair goes into the new sperm and egg Crossing over: the process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to another during meiosis, further increasing genetic variability
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Relation 2: Child’s Genotype and Phenotype Although every cell in your body contains copies of all the genes you received from your parents, only some of those genes are expressed.
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Developmental Changes Regulator genes largely control the continuous switching on and off of genes that underlie development across the lifespan. A given gene influences development and
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Chapter 3 - Biology and Behavior How Children Develop (3rd...

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