Chapter 8 - Intelligence and Academic Achievement How...

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Unformatted text preview: Intelligence and Academic Achievement How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Siegler, DeLoache & Eisenberg Chapter 8 The Study of Intelligence l Focus on individual differences. l Controversial issues l The roles of heredity and environment l The influence of ethnic and racial differences l The effects of wealth and poverty l The possibility of improvement Overview l I. What Is Intelligence? l II. Measuring Intelligence l III. IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes l IV. Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence l V. Alternative Perspectives on Intelligence l VI. Acquisition of Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Mathematics I. What Is Intelligence? A. Intelligence as a Single Trait B. Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities C. Intelligence as Multiple Processes D. A Proposed Resolution A. Intelligence as a Single Trait l Performance on almost all intellectual tasks is positively correlated, leading to the hypothesis that each individual possesses a certain amount of g (general intelligence) , the part of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks. l Supporting the usefulness of viewing intelligence as a single entity, measures of g correlate with: l Indicators of school achievement l Information-processing speed l The speed of neural transmission in the brain l Knowledge of subjects not studied in school B. Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities l There are also good arguments for viewing intelligence as more than a single general entity. l The simplest such view holds that there are two types of intelligence: l Crystallized intelligence: factual knowledge about the world l Fluid intelligence: the ability to think on the spot to solve problems B. Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities Two types of intelligence, with different developmental courses. l Crystallized intelligence increases with age. l Fluid intelligence declines slowly after early adulthood. B. Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities l Some approaches view intelligence as several primary mental abilities. l Other views see intelligence as comprising numerous distinct processes for taking in, transforming, and applying information. II. Measuring Intelligence A. The Contents of Intelligence Tests B. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) C. IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes A. The Contents of Intelligence Tests l Measures of intelligence must be based on observable behavior. l Modern intelligence tests, like Binets assessment, observe peoples actions on tasks that require a variety of types of intelligence. l Intelligence tests measure somewhat different aspects of intelligence in children of different ages. l They have their greatest success and widest application with preschoolers and older children. Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC) l The most widely used instrument for children 6 years and older l Divided into two main sections: l a verbal section that focuses on general knowledge of the world and skill in using language l a performance section that focuses on spatial and perceptual abilities l Each section includes six subtests. B. B....
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PSY 330 taught by Professor Patriciamiller during the Fall '10 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter 8 - Intelligence and Academic Achievement How...

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