Chapter 9 - Theories of Social Development How Children...

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Theories of Social Development How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Chapter 9
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The Role of Theory l Theories of social development attempt to account for important aspects of development: l Emotion, personality, attachment, self, peer relationships, morality, and gender l Such theories must: l Explain how children’s development is influenced by the people and individuals around them l Examine the ways that human beings affect each other
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Overview l I. Psychoanalytic Theories l II. Learning Theories l III. Theories of Social Cognition l IV. Ecological Theories of Development
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I. Psychoanalytic Theories A. View of Children’s Nature B. Central Developmental Issues C. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development D. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development E. Current Perspectives
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Freud’sTheory l Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has had greater impact on Western culture and on thinking about social and personality development than any other psychological theory.
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Erikson’s Theory l Erik Erikson’s life-span developmental theory , which was a successor to Freud’s theory, has also been influential.
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A. View of Children’s Nature l In Freud’s theory, behavior is motivated by the need to satisfy basic biological drives. l Psychoanalytic theories also stress the continuity of individual differences , maintaining that early experiences shape subsequent development.
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B. Central Developmental Issues l Continuity/Discontinuity: both are stage theories that stress discontinuity in development l Individual Differences: however, psychoanalytic theories stress the continuity of individual differences across development l Nature/Nurture: both emphasize the biological underpinnings of developmental stages interacting with the child’s experience
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C. Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development l Freud was a neurologist who became interested in the origins and treatments of mental illness. l He believed that many of his patients’ emotional problems originated in their early childhood relationships.
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1. Basic Features of Freud’s Theory l Freud’s theory is referred to as a theory of psychosexual development because it posits a series of universal developmental stages in which psychic energy becomes focused in different erogenous zones. l Psychic energy: the biologically based, instinctual drives that energize behavior, thoughts, and feelings l Erogenous zones: areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development
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2. The Developmental Process Freud’s Personality Structure: Id l The biological drives with which the infant is born l The earliest and most primitive personality structure l Unconscious and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure Ego l Emerges in the first year l The rational, logical, problem-solving component of personality Superego l Develops during the ages of 3 to 6 l Based on the child’s internalization (or adoption as his or her own) of the parents’ attributes, beliefs, and standards
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PSY 330 taught by Professor Patriciamiller during the Fall '10 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter 9 - Theories of Social Development How Children...

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