Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Attachment to Others and Development of Self...

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Attachment to Others and Development of Self How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Chapter 11
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Attachment l An emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time l The observations of John Bowlby and others involved with institutionalized children led to an understanding of the importance of parent- child interactions in development.
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Attachment l Many investigators now believe that children’s early relationships with parents influence the nature of their interactions with others from infancy into adulthood, as well as their feelings about their own worth.
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Overview l I. The Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship l II. Conceptions of the Self l III. Ethnic Identity l IV. Sexual Identity or Orientation l V. Self-Esteem
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I. The Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship A. Attachment Theory B. Measurement of Attachment Security C. Cultural Variations in Attachment D. Factors Associated with the Security of Children’s Attachment E. Does Security of Attachment Have Long-Term Effects?
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I. Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship l Harry Harlow’s experimental work with monkeys who were deprived of all early social interactions strongly supported the view that healthy social and emotional development is rooted in children’s early social interactions with adults.
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A. Attachment Theory l John Bowlby proposed attachment theory , which is influenced by ethological theory and posits that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival.
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1. Bowlby’s Attachment Theory l Secure base is Bowlby’s term for an attachment figure’s presence that provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment. l Mary Ainsworth, Bowlby’s student, extended and tested his ideas.
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Bowlby’s Four Phases of Attachment 1. Preattachment phase (birth to 6 weeks) The infant produces innate signals that bring others to his or her side and is comforted by the interaction that follows. 2. Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months) The phase in which infants begin to respond preferentially to familiar people.
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Bowlby’s Four Phases of Attachment 3. Clear-cut attachment (between 6-8 months and 1½-2 years) Characterized by the infant’s actively seeking contact with their regular caregivers and typically showing separation protest or distress when the caregiver departs 4. Reciprocal relationships (from 1½ or 2 years on) Involves children taking an active role in developing working partnerships with their caregivers
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Model of Attachment l The child develops a mental representation of the self, of attachment figures, and of relationships in general. l
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PSY 330 taught by Professor Patriciamiller during the Fall '10 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter 11 - Attachment to Others and Development of Self...

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