Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Peer Relationships How Children Develop (3rd...

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Peer Relationships How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Chapter 13
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Anna Freud and Sophie Dann’s Research l Studied a group of orphans liberated from a Nazi concentration camp at the end of World War II l Their findings provided some of the first evidence that relationships with peers can help very young children develop some of the social and emotional capacity for social relationships that usually emerge in the context of parent-child relationships. l Similar findings were obtained two decades later in research with monkeys. l Although peers alone cannot produce optimal development in children, peers can contribute to children’s development in meaningful ways.
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Overview l I. What’s Special About Peer Relationships? l II. Friendships l III. Peers in Groups l IV. Status in the Peer Group l V. Role of Parents in Children’s Peer Relationships
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I. What’s Special About Peer Relationships? l Peers are people of approximately the same age and status. l Theorists such as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Sullivan have argued that peer relationships provide a unique context for cognitive, social, and emotional development. l In their view, the equality, reciprocity, cooperation, and intimacy that can develop in peer relationships enhance children’s reasoning ability and their concern for others.
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II. Friendships A. Early Peer Interactions B. Developmental Changes C. Functions of Friendships D. Effects of Friendships E. Choice of Friends F. Culture and Peer Experience
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II. Friendships l Intimate, reciprocated positive relationships between people l The degree to which the conditions of friendship become evident in peer interactions increases with age during childhood.
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A graphic representation of Annie’s peer social world. Annie is a typical 8-year-old.
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A. Early Peer Interactions l Some researchers have argued that children can have friends by or before age 2. l Even 12- to 18-month-olds seem to select and prefer some children over others. l Starting at around 20 months of age, children also increasingly initiate more interactions with some children than with others.
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Early Peer Interactions l By the age of 2, children begin to develop skills that allow greater complexity in their social interactions. l These include imitating other people’s social behavior, engaging in cooperative problem solving, and reversing roles during play. l These more complex skills tend to be in greater evidence in the play of friends than of nonfriends.
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Strategies Chosen by Schoolchildren When a Peer Says Something Mean to, or About, Them
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B. Developmental Changes l Between ages 6 and 8, children define friendship primarily on the basis of actual activities and view friends in terms of rewards and costs. l
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Chapter 13 - Peer Relationships How Children Develop (3rd...

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