Chapter 15

Chapter 15 - Gender Development How Children Develop (3rd...

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Gender Development How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Chapter 15
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Overview l I. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Development l II. Milestones in Gender Development l III. Gender Comparisons
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Male vs. Female l Some gender differences in assertion (the tendency to take action on behalf of the self through competitive, independent or aggressive behaviors) and affiliation (the tendency to affirm connection with others through being emotionally open, empathetic, or cooperative). l Traditional masculine role: emphasis on assertion l Traditional feminine role: emphasis on affiliation l When assertion and affiliation are blended together, the result is a style known as collaboration , which is associated with gender- role flexibility and is more common among girls than among boys.
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I. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Development A. Biological Influences B. Cognitive and Motivational Influences C. Cultural Influences
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Perspectives l Gender has been explained on the basis of biological differences, cognition and motivation, and cultural differences. l It is likely that gender development results from the complex interaction of all three factors.
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A. Biological Influences Biologically oriented researchers take two different approaches to try to explain gender differences: 1. Evolutionary Approaches 2. Neuroscience Approaches
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1. Evolutionary Approaches l Maintains that sex differences in behavior emerged because they offer reproductive advantages l The greater male propensity for impulsivity and physical aggression may have provided them with reproductive advantages and in hunting. l Similarly, females’ tendency to build strong alliances with other females could have insured assistance with childcare, benefiting their offspring.
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1. Evolutionary Approaches l Studies of play behavior in boys and girls show sex differences consistent with the evolutionary perspective, with more rough-and- tumble play in boys and more play parenting in girls.
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Biosocial Theory l Wood and Eagly (2002) have presented an alternative evolutionary approach to gender development by emphasizing human evolution as maximizing our capacity for behavioral flexibility as an adaptation to environmental variability. l Focuses on physical rather than dispositional differences and proposes that these differences have behavioral and social consequences. l Biology is not destiny.
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2. Neuroscience Approaches l Focus on testing how hormones and brain functioning are related to variations in gender development. l Some who take the neuroscience approach also take an evolutionary psychology perspective.
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Hormones and Brain Functioning l Gender differences in behavior reflect different ratios of male and female sex hormones. l
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PSY 330 taught by Professor Patriciamiller during the Fall '10 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter 15 - Gender Development How Children Develop (3rd...

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