Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Conclusions How Children Develop (3rd ed.)...

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Conclusions How Children Develop (3rd ed.) Chapter 16
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Overview I. Nature and Nurture: All Interactions, All the Time II. Children Play Active Roles in Their Own Development III. Development is Both Continuous and Discontinuous IV. Mechanisms of Developmental Change V. The Sociocultural Context Shapes Development VI. How Do Children Become So Different from One Another? VII. Child-Development Research Can Improve Children’s Lives
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Theme 1: Nature and Nurture: All Interactions, All the Time A. Nature and Nurture Begin Interacting Before Birth B. Infants’ Nature Elicits Nurture C. Timing Matters D. Nature Does Not Reveal Itself All at Once E. Everything Influences Everything
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Core Concept: Nature and nurture interact to produce development.
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A. Nature and Nurture Begin Interacting Before Birth l A host of environmental factors, including teratogens, influence prenatal development. l Their effects depend in part on maternal and fetal genetic characteristics and the interactions among them. l Even qualities that are present at birth, such as taste preferences and maternal voice recognition, may be affected by experience as well as by nature.
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B. Infants’ Nature Elicits Nurture l Nature equips babies with a host of qualities that elicit appropriate nurture from parents and other caregivers.
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C. Timing Matters l The effects of a given kind of nurture depend on the nature of the organism at the time of the experience, both before and after birth. l For example, infants born with strabismus (i.e., cross- eyed) develop normal depth perception only if the surgery is done very early in life. l Such sensitive periods influence perception, language, intelligence, emotions, and social behavior.
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D. Nature Does Not Reveal Itself All at Once l Many genetically influenced properties do not become evident until middle childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. l For example, schizophrenia is highly influenced by genes inherited at conception, but in most instances the disorder is not apparent until late adolescence or early adulthood. l As with other aspects of development, the emergence of schizophrenia reflects a complex interplay between nature (the genetic predisposition) and nurture (being raised in a troubled home).
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E. Everything Influences Everything l Children’s nature – their genes, personal characteristics, and behavioral tendencies – interact with the nurture they receive from parents, teachers, peers, and broader society in ways that shape their self-esteem and other qualities.
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Theme 2: Children Play Active Roles in Their Own Development A. Self-Initiated Activity B. Active Interpretation of Experience C. Self-Regulation D. Eliciting Reactions from Other People
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Core Concept: l Physically interacting with the environment l Interpreting their experience l Regulating their behavior l Eliciting reactions from other people Children contribute to their own development.
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A. Self-Initiated Activity l From before birth through adolescence, children’s self-
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PSY 330 taught by Professor Patriciamiller during the Fall '10 term at S.F. State.

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Chapter 16 - Conclusions How Children Develop (3rd ed.)...

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