Rutherford Scattering

Rutherford Scattering - Nuclear Reactions Rutherford’s...

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Unformatted text preview: Nuclear Reactions Rutherford’s Alpha Scattering Experiment CS 4.1 Describe how Rutherford showed that: (a) The nucleus had a relatively small diameter compared with that of the atom. (b) Most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus. IN THE BEGINNING…… In the early days of atomic theory, many physicists tried to explain the model of an atom. In 1902, Ernest Rutherford showed that alpha particles emitted from the decay of unstable radioactive materials were electrically charged helium nuclei travelling at high speed. In 1909, Rutherford used alpha particles to investigate the composition of gold foil (i.e. to explain the model of an atom). Aim To investigate the composition of gold foil using alpha particles (i.e. to explain the model of an atom). Apparatus Rutherford’s alpha scattering apparatus: vacuum α-source θ zinc sulphide detector gold foil Procedure Rutherford fired alpha particles through a piece of gold foil and used a zinc sulphide detector to detect the scattered alpha particles and their location. Results….. α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α α Results Rutherford’s experiment found that: • Most of the alpha particles passed through the gold foil undeviated. • A few alpha particles were deflected from their path but continued through the gold foil. • A small number of alpha particles rebounded. Conclusion From the results of his experiment, Rutherford explained: • As most alpha particles passed through the gold foil atoms undeviated, Rutherford concluded that most of the atom was actually empty space. • The deviation of some alpha particles from their original path were due to positive charges within the foil. Conclusion From the results of his experiment, Rutherford explained: • A small number of alpha particles had rebounded because they collided with something much larger and heavier and which contains a concentrated region of positive charge. Conclusion As a result of his observations, Rutherford suggested that the atom had a positively charged centre which contained most of the mass. He called the heavy positively charged centre the nucleus. He went on to suggest that the nucleus was surrounded by orbiting electrons required for electrical neutrality. Conclusion As a result of his observations, Rutherford suggested that the atom had a positively charged centre which contained most of the mass. He called the heavy positively charged centre the nucleus. He went on to suggest that the nucleus was surrounded by orbiting electrons required for electrical neutrality. Conclusion As a result of his observations, Rutherford suggested that the atom had a positively charged centre which contained most of the mass. He called the heavy positively charged centre the nucleus. He went on to suggest that the nucleus was surrounded by orbiting electrons required for electrical neutrality. Conclusion As a result of his observations, Rutherford suggested that the atom had a positively charged centre which contained most of the mass. He called the heavy positively charged centre the nucleus. He went on to suggest that the nucleus was surrounded by orbiting electrons required for electrical neutrality. Conclusion As a result of his observations, Rutherford suggested that the atom had a positively charged centre which contained most of the mass. He called the heavy positively charged centre the nucleus. He went on to suggest that the nucleus was surrounded by orbiting electrons required for electrical neutrality. Modern measurements show that the average nucleus has a radius in the order of 10-15 m. This is 100, 000 times smaller than the radius of a typical atom. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PHYSICS 121 taught by Professor Richardvanfleet during the Winter '09 term at BYU.

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