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Chemical Bonding revised

Chemical Bonding revised - Unit 2 Bonding Overview Covalent...

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Unit 2: Bonding
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Overview Covalent Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding Electronegativity Molecular Shape Polarity Ionic Crystals Network Solids Intermolecular Forces
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Covalent Bonding Bonds between atoms are formed through the sharing of electrons Covalent bonds form between two non- metal atoms through sharing of pairs of electrons Atoms have a “desire” to have their outer energy levels filled (Octet Rule) Covalent bonding can be represented with Lewis Dot Diagrams
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Lewis Dot Diagrams Lewis Dot Diagrams show the sharing of electrons between atoms and where the bonds form atoms share electrons to fill their outer energy levels (8 electrons in their outer shell) The exception is hydrogen (2 electrons in its outer shell)
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Lewis Dot Diagrams for Hydrogen and Chlorine Gas The first row shows the atoms before they are bonded The second row shows the sharing of electrons to fill the outer energy level The third row has circles around the electrons to show those that belong to each atom. Where the circles overlap represents a covalent bond
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Multiple Bonds Double and triple bonds can form between atoms in order to fill the outer energy level This occurs when two atoms share more than one pair of electrons
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Multiple Lewis Structures Some molecules can have more than one possible Lewis structure, usually when one single bond and one double bond can be exchanged within the rules of drawing Lewis structures Example of SO 2 (g)
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Structural Diagrams Lewis Diagrams can be converted to structural diagrams for convenience Structural diagrams use lines to represent a bond, or a pair of electrons, but it does not show lone electron pairs Example: Chlorine Gas
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Lewis Dot Diagram Worksheet Using the rules for drawing Lewis dot diagrams, complete the worksheet (LDD and structural) For extra practice, try the Lewis Structures Thought Lab
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Stereochemistry – The Structures of Molecular Compounds So far we have seen molecules represented in 2-D However, molecules are actually 3 dimensional To predict 3 dimensional molecular shapes we use VSEPR theory (Valence- Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion) Based on the electrostatic repulsion of electron pairs
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Note that the repulsion force is strongest between two lone pairs and the weakest between two bonded pairs, and the repulsion between a lone pair and a bonded pair is intermediate We apply the VSEPR theory to a central atom that has an octet of electrons in its valence shell, and there are three categories of shapes; linear, trigonal planar, and tetrahedral In VSEPR, an electron group is a bond (single or multiple) or a lone pair
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Linear Forms when a central atom has two electron groups The shape is linear because the electron groups try to arrange themselves as far apart as possible The bond angle between the electron groups is 180 0 The central atom is bonded to two other atoms by two double bonds or a combination of a single bond and a triple bond
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