earthhistory

earthhistory - AtmosphericChemistry Formation of the...

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Atmospheric Chemistry Formation of the Atmosphere The Early Atmosphere Origin of Life and Oxygen Ozone Air Pollution Acid Rain Greenhouse Effect
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Formation of the Earth Apollo Space Program  (1960’s)  Otto Schmidt Cosmic Dust           Planet (100 million years) Ball 10 km              12,000 km Heat Generated during the Process               (  Collisions  )       Differentiation Occurs
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Thermal Consequences Earth’s Core Molten   Fe    ( Density 7.86 g/cc)      Ni   ( Density 8.9 g/cc)       Outer Shell          Fe 2 O 3  / FeO   ( Density 5.2/5.7 g/cc)   Si/SiO 2             (Density 2.33/2.32 g/cc)           Al/Al 2 O 3        ( Density 2.7/3.5 g/cc)        
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Formation of the Mantle The less dense material will go toward the surface ( Polar  Oxides of Si, Al, Fe ) Separation will occur as  Fe/Ni  core is nonpolar                           MANTLE                  starts to form and cool        (Production of Iron from Iron Ore)
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Isotope Distribution of the Earth Investigation of the History of the Earth primarily relied  on isotope analysis .        Decay of   238 U               206 Pb        Decay of   235 U               207 Pb    And the rare gases   He Ar Xe                 4.5 Billion years Old
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Appearance of the Atmosphere       Did the atmosphere suddenly appear ? Isotope Analysis gives a clue       Claude Allegre                 ( Rare Gases do not react readily )      Argon has three isotopes   ( 36 Ar  0.337) ( 38 Ar  0.063) ( 40 Ar  99.60)     EC  Decay  40 K               40 Ar                       ( t 1/2  = 1.28  x 10 9 y )
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Isotopes of Xe    Xenon has 9 isotopes       With the following distribution       124 Xe 0.1%   ,   126 Xe 0.09%,  128 Xe 1.91%      129 Xe 26.4%,  130 Xe 4.1%,    131 Xe 21.2% 132 Xe 26.9%,  134 Xe 10.4%,  136 Xe  8.9%         
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   Nucleosynthesis  gives  rise to  129 Xe       β Decay of  129 I               129 Xe                   (t 1/2  = 1.6  x 10 7 y)  The distribution of Xe isotopes in the mantle and atmosphere can  give information about the Earth’s Atmosphere as the  outgassed distribution will vary to that of the mantle.    
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earthhistory - AtmosphericChemistry Formation of the...

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