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periodictableQuestions

periodictableQuestions - Ch 3 Elements atoms ions and the...

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Ch 3: Elements, atoms, ions, and the periodic table
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Right now our picture of the atom: protons (+1) and neutrons (()) in nucleus and electrons (-1) in region outside the nucleus. Electrons are involved in bond formation when compounds are formed. So we want to see if there is some order in how electrons are arranged about the nucleus. Also we want to see if there are some general trends for the elements so we can get some general idea about how groups of elements react.
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3.1 The periodic law and the periodic table
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Early periodic tables 1817: Döbreiner's triads – 3 elements w/ regularly varying properties: S Se Te 1865: Newlands – "law of octaves", about 55 elements Early tables were based on mass number (A) or “combining weight”
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Modern periodic table 1869: Mendeleev and Meyer – "properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights;" 63-element table. 1913: Moseley – X-ray emission spectra vary with atomic number (Z) Modern periodic law:
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______: horizontal rows (seven in all); properties of elements in period show no similarity. Note that the lanthanides (period six) and the actinides (period seven) are at the bottom of the table
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_______: (families) are the columns of elements. The elements in the groups have similar chemical properties and predictable trends in physical properties. Groups also have labels. Group A elements are the _____________ elements and the Group B are the ___________ elements. Note that there is another way of labeling the groups with nos. 1-18.
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We give some groups names IA are the IIA the VIIA the VIIIA the
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Metals and nonmetals _______ are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, malleable, ductile, and form cations (positive ions, loss of electrons) during chemical change. ___________ are not shiny. They are poor conductors, brittle. They frequently form anions (negative, gain of electrons) in chemical changes.
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Metalloids have some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals. They are B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At. How to tell metals from nonmetals: Be B Al Si Ge As Sb Te Po At
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Some elements are gases at room temperature: hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, VIIIA’s; two are liquids-- bromine and mercury (Hg); the rest are solids.
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More info from periodic table 26 atomic number Fe chemical symbol 55.85 atomic mass
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Question 3.2 plus a few others: the symbol of the noble gas in period 3 the lightest element in Group IVA the only metalloid in Group IIIA the element whose atoms contain 18 protons the element in period 5, Group VIIA Give the name, atomic number and atomic mass for Mg
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3.20: for each of the elements Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Br and Kr answer: which are metals? which are representative metals? which tend to form positive ions which are inert or noble gases
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3.2 Electron arrangement and the periodic table Electron arrangement: tells us how the electrons are located in various orbitals in an atom--will explain a lot about bonding
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Skip ahead to the quantum mechanical atom, pp 62 on
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