The d Block

The d Block - The d block: The d block consists of three...

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SS CI 11.5 The d block 1 The d block: The d block: The d block consists of three horizontal The d block consists of three horizontal series in periods 4, 5 & 6 series in periods 4, 5 & 6 10 elements in each series 10 elements in each series Chemistry is “different” from other elements Chemistry is “different” from other elements Special electronic configurations important Special electronic configurations important Differences within a group in the d block are less Differences within a group in the d block are less sharp than in s & p block sharp than in s & p block Similarities across a period are greater Similarities across a period are greater
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 2 Electronic Configuration Electronic Configuration Across the 1 st row of the d block (Sc to Zn) each element has 1 more electron and 1 more proton Each “additional” electron enters the 3d sub-shell The core configuration for all the period 4 transition elements is that of Ar 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 3 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 3d Energy Ar 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4p
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 4 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 3d Energy Sc 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1 4s 2 4p
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 5 Electronic Arrangement Electronic Arrangement Elemen t Z 3d 4s Sc Sc 21 21 [Ar] [Ar]  Ti Ti 22 22 [Ar] [Ar] V 23 23 [Ar] [Ar] Cr Cr 24 24 [Ar] [Ar] Mn Mn 25 25 [Ar] [Ar] Fe Fe 26 26 [Ar] [Ar] Co Co 27 27 [Ar] [Ar] Ni Ni 28 28 [Ar] [Ar] Cu Cu 29 29 [Ar] [Ar] Zn Zn 30 30 [Ar] [Ar]
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 6 Chromium and Copper Chromium and Copper Cr and Cu don’t fit the pattern of building up the 3d sub-shell, why? In the ground state electrons are always arranged to give lowest total energy Electrons are negatively charged and repel each other Lower total energy is obtained with e - singly in orbitals rather than if they are paired in an orbital Energies of 3d and 4s orbitals very close together in Period 4
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 7 Chromium and Copper Chromium and Copper At Cr Orbital energies such that putting one e - into each 3d and 4s orbital gives lower energy than having 2 e - in the 4s orbital At Cu Putting 2 e - into the 4s orbital would give a higher energy than filling the 3d orbitals
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 8 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 3d Energy Cr 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 5 4s 1 4p
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 9 1s 2s 3s 4s 2p 3p 3d Energy Cu 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 1 4p
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SS CI 11.5 The d block 10 What is a transition metal?
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 201 taught by Professor Peterson during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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The d Block - The d block: The d block consists of three...

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