Coon_03 - Chapter 3 Child Development Table of Contents...

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Heredity Developmental Psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities Heredity (Nature): Transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children through genes DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure, shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information Table of Contents Exit
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Genes Genes: Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 3.1 This image, made with a scanning electron microscope, shows several pairs of human chromosomes. (Colors are artificial.) © Biophoto Associates/Science-Source/Photo Researchers Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 3.2 (Top left) Linked molecules (organic bases) make up the “rungs” on DNA’s twisted “molecular ladder.” The order of these molecules serves as a code for genetic information. The code provides a genetic blueprint that is unique for each individual (except identical twins). The drawing shows only a small section of a DNA strand. An entire strand of DNA is composed of billions of smaller molecules. (Bottom left) The nucleus of each cell in the body contains chromosomes made up of tightly wound coils of DNA. (Don’t be misled by the drawing: Chromosomes are microscopic in size and the chemical molecules that make up DNA are even smaller.) Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 3.3 Gene patterns for children of brown-eyed parents, where each parent has one brown-eye gene and one blue-eye gene. Since the brown-eye gene is dominant, 1 child in 4 will be blue-eyed. Thus, there is a significant chance that two brown-eyed parents will have a blue-eyed child. Table of Contents Exit
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Temperament and Environment Temperament: The physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood Easy Children: 40 %; relaxed and agreeable Difficult Children: 10 %; moody, intense, easily angered Slow-to-Warm-Up Children: 15 %; restrained, unexpressive, shy Remaining Children: Do not fit into any specific category Table of Contents Exit
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Environment Environment (“Nurture”): All external conditions that affect a person and perhaps his/her development Sensitive Periods: A period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place Congenital Problem: A problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect” Genetic Disorder: Problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents; e.g., cystic fibrosis Table of Contents Exit
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Teratogens Anything capable of causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Infants: Have low birth weight, a small head, body
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PSYCH 210 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at BYU.

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Coon_03 - Chapter 3 Child Development Table of Contents...

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