Coon_07 - Chapter 7 States of Consciousness Table of...

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Chapter 7 States of Consciousness Table of Contents Exit
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Some Early Definitions Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of at any instant Waking Consciousness: Normal, clear, organized, alert awareness Altered State of Consciousness (ASC): Changes that occur in quality and pattern of mental activity Table of Contents Exit
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Sleep Definition: Innate, biological rhythm Microsleep: Brief shift in brain activity to pattern normally recorded during sleep Sleep Deprivation: Sleep loss; being deprived of needed amounts of sleep Sleep-Deprivation Psychosis: Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations that occur because of sleep loss Sleep Patterns: Daily rhythms of sleep and waking Table of Contents Exit
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CNN - Sleep Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 7.1 Not all animals sleep, but like humans, those that do have powerful sleep needs. For example, dolphins must voluntarily breathe air, which means they face the choice of staying awake or drowning. The dolphin solves this problem by sleeping on just one side of its brain at a time! The other half of the brain, which remains awake, controls breathing (Jouvet, 1999). Table of Contents Exit
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Measuring Sleep Changes Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-wave machine; amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain Beta Waves: Small fast waves associated with alertness and awakeness Alpha Waves: Large, slow waves associated with relaxation and falling asleep Table of Contents Exit
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CNN – Sleep Studies Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 7.5 Changes in brain-wave patterns associated with various stages of sleep. Actually, most wave types are present at all times, but they occur more or less frequently in various sleep stages. Table of Contents Exit
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Stages of Sleep Stage 1: Small, irregular waves produced in light sleep (people may or may not say they were asleep) Hypnic Jerk: Reflex muscle contraction Stage 2: Deeper sleep; sleep spindles (short bursts of distinctive brain-wave activity) appear Stage 3: Deeper sleep; Delta waves appear; very large and slow Stage 4: Deepest level of normal sleep; almost purely Delta waves Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 7.2 Sleep rhythms. Bars show periods of sleep during the fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks of an experiment with a human subject. During unscheduled periods, the subject was allowed to select times of sleep and lighting. In his case, the result was a 25-hour sleep rhythm. Notice how his free-running rhythm began to advance around the clock. When periods of darkness were scheduled (colored area), the rhythm quickly resynchronized with 24-hour days. (Adapted from Czeisler, 1981.) Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 7.3 Development of sleep patterns. Short cycles of sleep and waking gradually become the night- day cycle of an adult. While most adults don’t take naps, midafternoon sleepiness is a natural part of the sleep cycles. (After Williams et al., 1964.) Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 7.4 These Siamese twins share the same blood supply, yet one sleeps while the other is awake. (Photo by Yale Joel, Life Magazine. © Time, Inc.) Table of Contents Exit
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