Coon_10 - Chapter 10 Cognition, Language, and Creativity...

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Table of Contents Exit Chapter 10 Cognition, Language, and Creativity
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Table of Contents Exit Cognition: Definition of Terms Cognition: Mentally processing information (images, concepts, etc.); thinking Cognitive Psychology: Study of human information processing Internal Representation: Mental expression of a problem or situation Concept: Generalized idea representing a class of related objects or events Language: Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, which are used for thinking and communication
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Table of Contents Exit Types of Mental Images Synesthesia: When images cross normal sensory barriers, e.g., listening to music leads to experiencing tastes Mental Rotation: Ability to change the position of an image in mental space Stored Image: Mental image kept in memory and retrieved when appropriate Created Image: Image that has been assembled or invented rather than remembered Kinesthetic Image: Created from produced, remembered, or imagined muscular sensations
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 10.1 Imagery in thinking. (Top) Subjects were shown a drawing similar to (a) and drawings of how (a) would look in other positions, such as (b) and (c). Subjects could recognize (a) after it had been “rotated” from its original position. However, the more (a) was rotated in space, the longer it took to recognize it. This result suggests that subjects actually formed a three-dimensional image of (a) and rotated the image to see if it matched. (Shepard, 1975.) (Bottom) Try your ability to manipulate mental images: Each of these shapes can be folded to make a cube; in which do the arrows meet? (After Kosslyn, 1985.)
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 10.2 When you see a flower, its image is represented by activity in the primary visual area of the cortex, at the back of the brain. Information about the flower is also relayed to other brain areas. If you form a mental image of a flower, information follows a reverse path. The result, once again, is activation of the primary visual area.
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Table of Contents Exit Concept Formation Process of classifying information into meaningful categories Positive Instance: Object or event that belongs to the concept class Negative Instance: Object or event that does not belong to the concept class Conceptual Rule: Guideline for deciding if objects or events belong to concept class
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Table of Contents Exit Concept Formation (cont.) Conjunctive Concept: Class of objects that are defined by the presence of two or more features (e.g., rabbit is white and furry) Relational Concept: Based on how an object relates to something else or how its features relate to one another Disjunctive Concept: Objects that have at least one of several possible features; either- or concept (strike in baseball)
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Table of Contents Exit More Concept Issues and Terms Prototypes: Ideal model used as an example of a concept Denotative Meaning: Exact definition of a word or concept Connotative Meaning: Emotional or personal meaning of a concept
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Table of Contents Exit Even More Concept Issues and Terms!
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PSYCH 210 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at BYU.

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Coon_10 - Chapter 10 Cognition, Language, and Creativity...

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