Coon_12 - Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion Table of...

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Table of Contents Exit Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion
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Table of Contents Exit Defining Motivation, and a Model Dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate actions Model of how motivated activities work Need: Internal deficiency; causes drive Drive: Energized motivational state (e.g., hunger, thirst; activates a response) Response: Action or series of actions designed to attain a goal Goal: Target of motivated behavior
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Table of Contents Exit Types of Motives Incentive Value: Goal’s appeal beyond its ability to fill a need Primary Motive: Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs that must be met to survive Stimulus Motive: Needs for stimulation and information; appear to be innate, but not necessary for survival Secondary Motive: Based on learned needs, drives, and goals
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Table of Contents Exit Hunger Homeostasis: Body equilibrium; balance Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar Hypothalamus: Brain structure; regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, including hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior Feeding System: Area in the hypothalamus that, when stimulated, initiates eating Satiety System: Area in the hypothalamus that terminates eating
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 12.1 Needs and incentives interact to determine drive strength (above). (a) Moderate need combined with a high-incentive goal produces a strong drive. (b) Even when a strong need exists, drive strength may be moderate if a goal’s incentive value is low. It is important to remember, however, that incentive value lies “in the eye of the beholder.”
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 12.2 In Cannon’s early study of hunger, a simple apparatus was used to simultaneously record hunger pangs and stomach contractions. (After Cannon, 1934.)
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 12.3 Location of the hypothalamus in the human brain.
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Table of Contents Exit More on Eating Behavior (Hungry Yet?) Neuropeptide Y (NPY): Substance in the brain that initiates eating Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1): Substance in brain that terminates eating Set Point: Proportion of body fat that is maintained by changes in hunger and eating; point where weight stays the same when you make no effort to gain or lose weight
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 12.4 This is a cross section through the middle of the brain (viewed from the front of the brain). Indicated areas of the hypothalamus are associated with hunger and the regulation of body weight.
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Table of Contents Exit The Final Word on Eating Behavior Leptin: Substance released by fat cells that inhibits eating; presently being studied for possible importance in controlling and losing weight External Eating Cues: External stimuli that tend to encourage hunger or elicit eating; these cues may cause you to eat even if you are stuffed (like Homer Simpson, who eats whatever he sees!)
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Table of Contents Exit Behavioral Dieting Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits and not on temporary self-starvation Some keys Start with a complete physical Exercise Be committed to weight loss
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Table of Contents Exit
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Coon_12 - Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion Table of...

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