Coon_14 - Chapter 14 Personality Table of Contents Table...

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Table of Contents Exit Chapter 14 Personality
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Table of Contents Exit Defining Some Terms Personality: A person’s unique pattern of thinking, emotion, and behavior; the consistency of who you are, have been, and will become Character: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and distractibility Personality Traits: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations Personality Type: People who have several traits in common
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Table of Contents Exit Personality Types and Other Concepts Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward Self-Concept: Your ideas, perceptions, and feelings about who you are Self-Esteem: How we evaluate ourselves
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 14.1 Personality types are defined by the presence of several specific traits. For example, several possible personality traits are shown in the left column. A person who has a Type A personality typically possesses all or most of the highlighted traits. Type A persons are especially prone to heart disease (see Chapter 12). Self-concepts can be remarkably consistent. In an interesting study, very old people were asked how they had changed over the years. Almost all thought they were essentially the same person they were when they were young (Troll & Skaff, 1997).
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 14.2 English psychologist Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) believed that many personality traits are related to whether you are mainly introverted or extroverted and whether you tend to be emotionally stable or unstable (highly emotional). These characteristics, in turn, are related to four basic types of temperament first recognized by the early Greeks. The types are: melancholic (sad, gloomy), choleric (hot-tempered, irritable), phlegmatic (sluggish, calm), and sanguine (cheerful, hopeful). (Adapted from Eysenck, 1981.)
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Table of Contents Exit Personality Theories: An Overview Personality Theory: System of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality; includes five perspectives: Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior Psychodynamic Theories: Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles Behavioristic Theories: Focus on external environment and on effects of conditioning and learning Social Learning Theories: Attribute difference in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental processes Humanistic Theories: Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth
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Table of Contents Exit Gordon Allport and Traits Common Traits: Characteristics shared by most members of a culture Individual Traits: Define a person’s unique personal qualities Cardinal Traits: So basic that all of a person’s
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Coon_14 - Chapter 14 Personality Table of Contents Table...

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