Coon_18 - Chapter 18 Social Behavior Table of Contents...

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Table of Contents Exit Chapter 18 Social Behavior
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Table of Contents Exit What is Social Psychology? Some Definitions Social Psychology: Scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations; how people act in the presence (actual or implied) of others Culture: Ongoing pattern of life that is passed from one generation to another
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Table of Contents Exit Social Roles Social Role: Patterns of behavior expected of people in various social positions (e.g. daughter, mother, teacher, President (!)) Ascribed Role: Assigned to a person or not under personal control Achieved Role: Attained voluntarily or by special effort: teacher, mayor, President Role Conflict: When two or more roles make conflicting demands on behavior
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Table of Contents Exit Groups Group Structure: Network of roles, communication, pathways, and power in a group Group Cohesiveness: Degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in the group Cohesive groups work better together What kind of groups did you see on “Survivor,” “Big Brother,” “Road Rules,” and “Real World”? Status: Level of social power and importance Norm: Accepted, but usually unspoken, standard of appropriate behavior
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 18.1 Results of an experiment on norms concerning littering. The prior existence of litter in a public setting implies that littering is acceptable. This encourages others to “trash” the area. (From Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990.)
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Table of Contents Exit Personal Space Area surrounding the body that is defined as private and is subject to personal control
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Table of Contents Exit Spatial Norms Proxemics: Systematic study of human use of personal space, especially in social settings Intimate Distance: Most private space immediately surrounding the body; 18 inches from the skin. Reserved for special people or special circumstances Personal Distance: Maintained in interactions with friends. 18 inches to 4 feet from body; arm’s length Social Distance: Impersonal interaction takes place; 4 to 12 feet Public Distance: Formal interactions take place (like giving a speech); 12 feet or more
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 18.2 Typical spatial zones (in feet) for face-to-face interactions in North America. Often, we must stand within intimate distance of others in crowds, buses, subways, elevators, and other public places. At such times, privacy is maintained by avoiding eye contact, by standing shoulder to shoulder or back to back, and by positioning a purse, bag, package, or coat as a barrier to spatial intrusions.
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Table of Contents Exit Social Perception Attribution Theory: Making inferences about the causes of one’s own behavior and others’ behavior Consistency: Person’s behavior changes very little in many different circumstances Distinctiveness: Noticing that a behavior only occurs under certain circumstances
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Table of Contents Exit Social Perception (cont.) Actor: Person whose behavior is being interpreted Object: Aim, motive, or target of an action
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PSYCH 210 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at BYU.

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Coon_18 - Chapter 18 Social Behavior Table of Contents...

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