Ch 40 lecture notes %28doc%29

Ch 40 lecture notes %28doc%29 - Slide: 2 Animal Form and...

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Slide: 2 Animal Form and Function Chapter 40 Slide: 3 Animal Form and Function Anatomy – The structure (form) of an organism (i.e. how its parts are organized and of what it’s made) - The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632, Rembrandt Slide: 4 Animal Form and Function Gross anatomy vs. microscopic anatomy (histology) Slide: 5 Animal Form and Function Physiology – The physical and chemical processes (functions) of an organism (i.e. how the body works) e.g. The mechanics of breathing e.g. How does the kidney function? e.g. How does the blood absorb O2? e.g. How does the heart contract? Slide: 8 Form Determines Function Bird beak shape determines what they eat or how they obtain food Slide: 9 Form Determines Function Like an airplane, a bird’s body and wing shape determine what/ how it eats e.g Like a spitfire airplane, the compact body and moderate length wings of a coopers hawk allows for great maneuverability e.g. Like a glider, the long narrow wings of an albatross allow it to cover long distances without using much energy e.g. Like a spyplane, the long broad wings of a vulture give it stability as it circles at high altitudes in search of food e.g. Like the concorde, the ability of a peregrine falcon to pull its wings close to its body allows for great speed e.g. Like a helicopter, the motion of a hummingbird’s wings allows it to hover Slide: 10 Form Determines Function The shape of a bird’s foot determines what it eats and how it searches for food e.g. Grasping talon of a hawk e.g. Scratching for insects by a chicken e.g. Webbed foot allows swimming in waterfowl e.g. Backwards facing toe allows songbirds to grip branch (i.e. perch) e.g. Loss of a toe and forward facing toes allow roadrunners to run e.g. Backwards facing toes gives woodpeckers stability as they climb tree trunks Slide: 11 Constraints on Form and Function All is not possible! Evolutionary history and physical laws place limits on form Slide: 12 Evolutionary history (i.e. ancestry) constrains form Even though they spend all of their lives underwater, due to their ancestry, whales don’t have gills
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Slide: 13 Physical laws constrain form e.g. Due to the drag imposed by water (46x viscosity of air), aquatic predators must be hairless and sleek Thus natural selection results in similar features in independent
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Ch 40 lecture notes %28doc%29 - Slide: 2 Animal Form and...

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