Ch 41%28doc%29 - Chapter 41 Slide: 1 Nutrition CH 41 Slide:...

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Chapter 41 Slide: 1 Nutrition CH 41 Slide: 6 An animal’s diet provides organic molecules. .. Diet: Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Amino Acids (AAs) Fatty Acids (Fas) Vitamins Minerals Slide: 7 which are converted into chemical energy. .. Chemical energy ATP NADPH Byproducts H2O CO2 NH3 (ammonia in urine) Slide: 8 To power processes in the body Activity Growth Maintenance Reproduction Synthesis of complex organic molecules Some amino acids Most fatty acids A Few vitamins Some proteins Some carbohydrates Slide: 9 Carbon and Nitrogen needed to synthesize organic molecules is obtained from the diet. Carbon comes from Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Nitrogen comes from Amino acids Fatty acids Vitamins Minerals Slide: 10 Other needed organic molecules cannot be synthesized and must be obtained in the diet (i.e. are essential nutrients) Some amino acids A few fatty acids Most vitamins Minerals
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Essential Nutrients Required by cells Cannot be synthesized form dietary organic molecules Must be obtained from dietary sources 4 classes of essential nutrients: Amino acids Fatty acids Vitamins Minerals Slide: 12 Amino Acids Animals require 20 amino acids for protein synthesis Can synthesize ~ ½ from molecules in diet Thus ~ ½ are essential (i.e. must be obtained from the diet) Do not need to know which AAs are essential Slide: 15 Fatty Acids Acids produced when fats are broken down Saturated and unsaturated Used to produce some membrane phospholipids and for hormone production e.g. blood pressure, immune response, inflammation response Animals can synthesize all but 2 needed Fas linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare Slide: 16 Vitamins Organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts Required – thus by definition al l vitamins are essential i.e. can’t be synthesized or synthesized in insufficient amounts Small amounts - vs. AAs and FAs which are needed in greater amounts Functions: Coenzymes or precursors for coenzymes (bind to enzymes increasing their activity) Hormone-like functions e.g. regulate mineral metabolism, cell growth/ differentiation Antioxidants reduce oxidation reactions that can damage cells Different species have different vitamins e.g. Vitamin C only needed in apes, monkeys, bats, guinea pigs and a few others 13 known vitamins in humans Humans can produce a few if conditions are right (but not enough to satisfy requirements): Vitamin K and B7: Produced by intestinal microorganisms Vitamin D: Produce w/ aid of UV light in skin Vitamin A: from ingested beta-carotine Slide: 17 Vitamins 9 water-soluble Need regular replacement in body 4 fat-soluble Stored in the liver and fatty tissues, and are eliminated much more slowly than water-soluble vitamins. Overconsumption can cause health problems
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course BSC 2011C taught by Professor Klowden/crampton during the Fall '11 term at University of Central Florida.

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Ch 41%28doc%29 - Chapter 41 Slide: 1 Nutrition CH 41 Slide:...

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