GIS3043_Lecture_06 - GIS3043C GIS for Environmental Studies...

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Unformatted text preview: GIS3043C GIS for Environmental Studies Fall 2010 Michael J. Gilbrook, GISP, AICP Frank Salmon, GISP Lecture 06 Map Visualization – Symbols & Generalization Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 2 Data Categories Qualitative Nominal (name) data No implied hierarchy or pattern Examples = States, vegetation types, soil types Quantitative – Three Kinds of Values: Ordinal – Implied order, but no specified measurement interval or zero point (e.g., small, medium & large) Interval – Measurement scale with an arbitrary zero point (e.g., temperature in C or F, Olympics scores) Ratio – Real number measurements with an established zero (e.g., chemical concentration in ppm, % Democrat) Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 3 Semiology of Graphics , 1967 Jacques Bertin Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 4 Visual Variables of Jacques Bertin Figure 3.1. Bertin’s six retinal variables, page 59. From Monmonier, M. 1993. Mapping It Out: Expository Cartography for the Humanities and Social Sciences . University of Chicago Press. 301 pp. ISBN 0226534170 Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 5 Visual Variables - Examples Size Value Gray Scale Density Hue (Color) Orientation Shape Texture Figure 12.9., page 274. From Longley, P.A., M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire and D.W. Rhind. 2005. Geographic Information Systems and Science, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons. West Sussex, England. 517 pp. ISBN: 0-470-87001-X. N/A N/A N/A N/A Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 6 “New” Visual Variables Saturation Same as Value, but with color Arrangement Position Symbol Pattern Focus Visual Hierarchy Figure 12.9., page 274. From Longley, P.A., M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire and D.W. Rhind. 2005. Geographic Information Systems and Science, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons. West Sussex, England. 517 pp. ISBN: 0-470-87001-X. N/A N/A Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 7 Visual Variables - Size Appropriate Data Categories Order (Ordinal) Quantity (Interval or Ratio) Symbol Types Points Lines Issues Maximum of 5 – 6 Symbols Increase In Symbol Size Must Be Large Enough To Be Easily Perceived Examples Roadway types (e.g., local, state roads, interstates) City population Figure 2.13., Graduated point symbols offer straightforward portrayals of population size and population density, page 22. From Monmonier, M. and H. J. De Blij. 1996. How to Lie With Maps . 2nd edition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226534219. Fall 2010 Lecture #06 Slide Number 8 Visual Variables – Value (Density) Appropriate Data Categories Order (Ordinal) Quantitative (Interval or Ratio) Maximum Symbols Quantitative – 5 to 7 Ordinal – 7 to 11...
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GIS3043_Lecture_06 - GIS3043C GIS for Environmental Studies...

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