Philosophy to Biology - Connecting Philosophy with Biology...

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Unformatted text preview: Connecting Philosophy with Biology Traditional Branches of Philosophy: • Ontology • Epistemology • Metaphysics • Ethics • Aesthetics John Searle Defines a Realist Ontological Position . . . And He Makes Our Socially Constructed Reality Visible to Us as it Exists Within the Ontologically Objective Reality Studied By Physics, Chemistry, and Biology ONTOLOGY Is The Branch of Philosophy That Deals With EXISTENCE Searle: Realism Is the Position that a Reality Exists Independently of Our Representations of It “calico cat” A Picture of Searle’s “Realism”* REALI TY *Searle calls his position “External Realism,” to distinguish it from some other philosophical positions. Don’t worry about this terminology. Representatio n Reality Exists “External to” Our Representations of It W. T. Stace Staked Out A “Phenomenalist” Position: There’s Nothing “External” to Our Perceptions One Version of “AntiRealism”: (1) Phenomenalist Idealism We Assume That: We Attempt to Communicate with Each Other in a Public Language Searle’s Argument Against (1) Phenomenalist Idealism It’s a male No, it’s a female there is a way that things are If We Communicate in a Public Language, We Presuppose That We Share a Common Reality Stephen Vogel Presents A Position of “Nature” Antirealism That Does NOT Recognize the Independent Reality of Nonhuman Nature Vogel: Another Version of Anti- Realism: (2) Pure Social Constructionism Vogel’s Nature AntiRealism: . . . ?? Is There “No Reality” To Food Webs, or to the Biosphere as a Functional System? Searle’s Argument Against (2) Pure Social Constructionism And that Something Has Its own Way of Being : e.g., the Way the Biosphere Functions! * * Searle Thinks This Was a Big Mistake! It Became Fashionable in the Late 20th Century for Philosophers to Reject “Realism” EPISTEMOLOGY Is The Branch of Philosophy That Deals With KNOWLEDGE The Classic “Problem of Knowledge” The “Thing-In-Itself” In The Critique of Pure Reason , Immanuel Kant Recognized that What We Humans Can “Know” Is Necessarily Limited by the Way Our Sense Organs Perceive and Our Human Brains Package Our Perceptions into Concepts. We Can Never Know “The Thing-In- Itself,” Only How It Appears to Us. Kant’s Insight was that Time, Space, Number, Causality May All Be Products of Our Human Minds, Not Properties of “the World” Our Representatio n of It Our Current “Problem of Knowledge” How Do We Know That Our Representations Are Accurate Depictions of Reality and not Intentional Distortions? Representation REALIT Y What Do We Know? St. Petersburg Times , August 9, 2010 “The Dawn of McScience”: Richard Horton, the editor of Lancet , examines some troubling trends with Our Medical “Knowledge” The New York Review of Books , March 11, 2004 THEORIES of TRUTH Define What We Mean by “Truth” THEORIES OF TRUTH The Epistemic Gap Our “Web of Belief” W e Are “Living in a Bubble” . . ....
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PHI 4633H taught by Professor Hawkins during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.

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Philosophy to Biology - Connecting Philosophy with Biology...

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