06_quantum numbers and orbital diagram

06_quantum numbers and orbital diagram - Electronic...

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Electronic Structure An electron is confined to a specific region, giving it a particular energy. Electrons do not move freely in space. The regions occupied by electrons are called principal energy levels or shells ( n ). The shells are numbered n = 1, 2, 3, etc. Electrons in lower numbered shells are closer to the nucleus and are lower in energy. Electrons in higher numbered shells are further from the nucleus and are higher in energy. n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 Principle Energy Level (Shell)

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Electronic Structure Shells with larger numbers ( n ) are farther from the nucleus, have a larger volume, and can therefore hold more electrons. The distribution of electrons in the first four shells: Shell ( n ) 1 2 3 4 Number of Electrons in a Shell 2 8 18 32 increasing energy increasing number of electrons Principle Energy Level (Shell)
Principal Quantum Number ( n ) The principal quantum number, n , describes the energy level on which the orbital resides. The values of n are integers ≥ 1.

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s Orbitals Observing a graph of probabilities of finding an electron versus distance from the nucleus, we see that s orbitals possess n − 1 nodes , or regions where there is 0 probability of finding an electron.
p Orbitals The value of l for p orbitals is 1. They have two lobes with a node between them.

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d Orbitals The value of l for a d orbital is 2. Four of the five d orbitals have 4 lobes; the other resembles a p orbital with a doughnut around the center.
Subshells Shells are divided into subshells , identified by the letters s , p , d , and f . Subshell

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06_quantum numbers and orbital diagram - Electronic...

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