Mitchell Internatioanl Environmental Agreements.pdf;JSESSIONIDVISTA=95p3MLkbtTXLt8bw2Nrd7GKvcjcNz3t9

Mitchell Internatioanl Environmental Agreements.pdf;JSESSIONIDVISTA=95p3MLkbtTXLt8bw2Nrd7GKvcjcNz3t9

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Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2003. 28:429–61 doi: 10.1146/annurev.energy.28.050302.105603 Copyright c 2003 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved First published online as a Review in Advance on August 14, 2003 I NTERNATIONAL E NVIRONMENTAL A GREEMENTS : A Survey of Their Features, Formation, and Effects Ronald B. Mitchell Department of Political Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1284; email: [email protected] Key Words negotiations, institutions, effectiveness, treaties, regimes, IEA, MEA, BEA Abstract International environmental agreements (IEAs), legally binding inter- governmental efforts directed at reducing human impacts on the environment, are common features of global environmental governance. Using a clear definition al- lowed creation of a comprehensive database [available online at (31)] listing over 700 multilateral agreements (MEAs) and over 1000 bilateral agreements (BEAs), which included treaties, protocols, and amendments that address numerous pollutants; preser- vation of many species; and, increasingly, protection of various habitats. Research into the factors that explain the timing, content, and membership in environmental agree- ments clarifies that the interests and power of influential states create pressures for, or constraints on, progress in global environmental governance but that discourse, actors, and processes also play important roles. Variation in the effects of these agreements on environmental behaviors and outcomes often depends as much on characteristics of member countries, the international context, and the underlying environmental problem as on the differences in agreement design. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 DEFINING INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . 431 DESCRIBING THE POPULATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Multilateral Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Connections Among Multilateral Agreements: Lineages and Secretariats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 Substantive and Temporal Patterns in Multilateral Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Bilateral Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 NEGOTIATING INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS: WHY WE HAVE THOSE WE HAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Interests, Power, and Discourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Actors and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 MAKING INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS EFFECTIVE: WHY SOME WORK AND OTHERS DO NOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 1543-5938/03/1121-0429$14.00 429 Annu. Rev. Environ. Resourc. 2003.28:429-461. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by University of Central Florida on 07/28/10. For personal use only.
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430 MITCHELL Identifying the Effects of Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 A Summary of the Effects of Environmental Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446 The Determinants of Regime Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 The Endogeneity Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 INTRODUCTION Since at least the late 1800s and with increasing regularity in the past half century, countries have negotiated hundreds of international legal agreements to address environmental problems they cannot resolve alone. Conventions addressing ozone depletion, climate change, and biodiversity are well-known, but governments have also concluded global, regional, and bilateral agreements to mitigate pollution of oceans, regional seas, rivers, and lakes; reduce over-exploitation of numerous
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