Selected Models of Change** From Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice (NIH Publication No. 97-3896), by the National Cancer Institute, 1995. Bethesda, MD. In the public domain.PRECEDE-PROCEEDThe PRECEDE-PROCEED framework is an approach to planning that examines the factors contributing to behavior change. These include: Predisposing factors—the individual’s knowledge, attitudes, behavior, beliefs, and values before intervention that affect willingness to change Enabling factors—factors in the environment or community of an individual that facilitate or present obstacles to change Reinforcing factors—the positive or negative effects of adopting the behavior (including social support) that influence continuing the behavior These factors require that individuals be considered in the context of their community and social structures, and not in isolation, when planning communication or health education strategies. PRECEDE-PROCEED Framework PRECEDEPROCEEDFor Further ReadingGreen, L.W., & Kreuter, M.W. (1999). Health promotion planning: An educational and ecological approach(3rd ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Green, L.W., & Ottoson, J. M. (1999). Community and population health(8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
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