Lecture3-Epidemiology

Lecture3-Epidemiology - Intro PH Housing 1 1 Epidemiology 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Intro PH Housing 1 1 Epidemiology 2 Surveillance Purpose of Surveillance in PH Describe trends & natural history of problem Detect epidemics Detail patterns of disease Plan & set program priorities Detect rare but important cases of disease 3 Surveillance Surveillance: Four Steps 1. Collection of data 2. Interpretation of data 3. Dissemination of information 4. Action control & prevent problems Surveillance reports are descriptive Intro PH Housing 2 4 Surveillance Surveillance System Attributes Simple Flexible Acceptable (participation) Sensitive Representative Timely Cost 5 Surveillance 2002 Notifiable Disease # Cases AIDS 42,745 Chlamydia 834,555 Giardia 21,206 Gonorrhea 351,852 HIV Infection 63,000 Lyme Disease 23,763 Salmonellosis 44,264 Syphilis 32,871 6 Surveillance Surveillance systems Many systems resulted from local/national emergencies Asian influenza (1957) Toxic Shock Hantavirus E. coli 0157:H7 West Nile Virus Intro PH Housing 3 7 Epidemiology John Snow & Broad Street Pump (1854) Traced source Charted frequency & distribution 8 9 Cholera deaths from August 19 to September 30, 1854 Intro PH Housing 4 10 Broad Street Pump Water Co. Deaths per 10,000 Homes Southwark & 315 Vauxhall Co. Lambeth Co. 37 Rest of London 59 11 12 "I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St. James's parish, on the evening of Thursday, 7th September, and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day." John Snow in On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (1855) Intro PH Housing 5 13 What is Epidemiology? Greek: epi, meaning on or upon demos, meaning people logos, meaning the study of Causes, frequency & distribution Provides the most compelling evidence for measuring environmental risk to humans 14 What is Epidemiology? Who What When Where Why How Epidemiology differs from medicine 15 Epidemiological Studies Have provided critical links: Toxic shock Leukemia Heart disease Lung cancer, heart attacks & low birth weight with smoking Legionnaires disease Intro PH Housing 6 16 Legionnaires Disease July 1976 American Legion convention Pneumonia, aches, fever 150 cases & 20 deaths Hotel Bellevue-Stratford 17 Legionnaires Disease Higher rates among certain individuals Evidence suggested airborne Not person to person Bacteria eventually identified Hotel was searched for source Helped with past 18 Uses of Epidemiology Identify causes of disease Complete clinical picture of disease Identify new syndromes Measure efficacy of therapy/prevention Monitor health of region (surveillance) ID high risk groups ID risk factors Study trends over time (predictive) Investigate outbreaks Intro PH Housing 7 19 Uses of Epidemiology For every day decisions: Stop smoking Take stairs...
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Lecture3-Epidemiology - Intro PH Housing 1 1 Epidemiology 2...

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