handout lecture 2 -Chapter 4

handout lecture 2 -Chapter 4 - 9/12/11


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Unformatted text preview: 9/12/11
 General
Biology
01:119:101‐Fall
2011
 Dr.
Monica
Torres
 1 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Outline 2
 1
 9/12/11
 General
Biology
01:119:101‐Fall
2011
 Dr.
Monica
Torres
 Biosphere Living systems show hierarchical organization 3
 The scale of life Mitochondrion
 Red
blood
 cells
 Chloroplast
 Protein
 Amino
 Atom
 acids
 0.1
nm
 1
nm
 Virus
 Human
 egg
 Typical
 bacteria
 Chicken
 egg
 Nucleus
 Ribosomes
 10
nm
 Smallest
 bacteria
 100
nm
 Electron
microscope
 Epithelial
 cell
 1
μm
 10
μm
 100
μm
 Light
microscope
 Measurements
 1
meter
=
1000
millimeters
(mm)
 1
millimeter
=
1000
micrometers
(μm)
 1
micrometer
=
1000
nanometers
(nm)
 Frog
egg
 1
mm
 10
mm
 Some
 nerve
cells
 100
mm
 Adult
 human
 1
m
 10
m
 Human
eye
 Fig.
4‐1,
p.
75
 2
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Cell size is limited: Surface Area–To-Volume Ratio Smaller
surface
 area
compared
to
 volume
 5
 Fig.
4‐2,
p.
77
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres What
are
the
tools
that
biologists
use
to
study
cells?
 - Light microscope (LM) -  Electron microscope (EM) 3
 9/12/11
 GGeneral Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 eneral Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 DDrMonica Torres r. . Monica Torres Biochemical techniques to study cells Centrifuge
600
×
G
 10
minutes
 Nuclei
in
pellet
 Centrifuge
supernatant
 20,000
×
G
 30
minutes
 Mitochondria,
 chloroplasts
in
pellet
 Centrifuge
supernatant
 100,000
×
G
 90
minutes
 Microsomal
pellet
 (contains
ER,
Golgi,
 plasma
membrane)
 Density
gradient
centrifugation
 Fig.
4‐5b,
p.
81
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 General
Biology
01:119:101‐Fall
2011
 Dr. Monica Torres Dr.
Monica
Torres
 The two main categories of cells Pearson
 4
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Structure of a Prokaryotic Cell 9 Fig. 4.6, p 82 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Structure of Eukaryotic Cell Eukaryotic cell structure and functions Table 4-1, p. 90 10
 5
 9/12/11
 Plasma
membrane
and
fluid
mosaic
model
 Structure and composition: Function: 11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres 
Endomembrane
system:
Nucleus
 Structure: Ch romatin Function: 12
 Fig.
4‐13,
p.
88
 6
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres 
Ribosomes
 -  Composition: - Two types - Function 13 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Endomembrane
system:
The
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
 •  Structure: RER SER •  Function: Fig. 4.14, p. 91 14
 7
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Endomembrane
system:
Golgi
apparatus
 •  Structure: •  Function: 15
 Protein transport within the cell General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Protein
Transport
Within
the
Cell
 nucleus Fig. 4.16, p.92 16
 8
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Lysosomes
 • Structure: •  Function: 17
 Dr.
Monica
Torres
 Plant
Science
11:776:242:02‐Spring
2011
 Vacoules
 • Structure: •  Function: 18
 9
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Mitochondria
 •  Structure: Outer
mitochondrial
 membrane
 Inner
mitochondrial
 membrane
 •  Function: Matrix
 Cristae
 19
 Fig.
4‐21,
p.
95
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres 

Chloroplast
(plastid)
 •  Structure: •  Function: Fig. 4.22. p. 96 20
 10
 9/12/11
 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres Cellular
Respiration
and
Photosynthesis
 Fig. 4. 20. p.21
 95 General Biology 01:119:101-Fall 2011 Dr. Monica Torres The
cytoskeleton
has
three
components:
 Microfilaments


























Intermediate
filaments























Microtubules
 11
 9/12/11
 Dr.
Monica
Torres
 Plant
Science
11:776:242:02‐Spring
2011
 Cell wall-plant cell • Photo credit: www.wpclipart.com/plants; Zhong, R., et al., (2008) Plant Cell 20:2763-2782 . 12
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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