15Chemicalsenses

15Chemicalsenses - Olfaction and Gustation The Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: Olfaction and Gustation The Chemical Senses • Organization of the Olfactory System Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory Bulb Location Targets Amygdala Hypothalamus Cerebral Cortex Figure 15.1 Organization of the human olfactory system (Part 1) Figure 15.1 Organization of the human olfactory system (Part 2) Figure 15.1 Organization of the human olfactory system (Part 3) Figure 15.1 Organization of the human olfactory system (Part 4) • Unique properties of the olfactory system No distinct submodalities No obvious topographical map (although we’ll see that certain odorants excite neurons in specific parts of the olfactory bulb) • Olfactory perception in human Poor relative to some other animals Differences in numbers of olfactory receptor cells Differences in numbers of odorant receptors Differences in amount of cortex dedicated to olfaction Figure 15.2 Odorant perception in mammals (Part 1) • Sensitivity continued Ability to detect odorants depends on chemistry Figure 15.2 Odorant perception in mammals (Part 2) • Human olfactory perception cont’d Qualities of odorants Divided into several scent categories Empirically derived (no obvious structural relationship among “related” odorants) Pungent, floral, musky, camphor, peppermint, ether and putrid Figure 15.2 Odorant perception in mammals (Part 2) Figure 15.2 Odorant perception in mammals (Part 3) • Mapping of aesthetic quality of odor Orbitofrontal cortex Cingulate cortex • Problems with olfaction Anosmia Congenital/genetic or Acquired (and sometimes temporary) Age-related decreases in sensitivity Figure 15.3 Anosmia is the inability to identify common odors Figure 15.4 Normal decline in olfactory sensitivity with age Diminished central activity in the aged. •...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 2341 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Texas State.

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15Chemicalsenses - Olfaction and Gustation The Chemical...

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