22Early+Brain+Development

22Early+Brain+Development - Unit 4 Opener Early Brain...

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Unit 4 Opener
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Early Brain Development
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Development of gross structures Differentiation of the cell types of the nervous system
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Model Organisms Sea urchin Starfish Zebrafish C. elegans Drosophila Frog ( Xenopus ) Chick Human www.iayork.com www.sanger.ac.uk www.space.gc.ca www.xenopus.com
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Developmental Stages Zygote Morula - solid ball of cells Blastula - hollow ball of cells Gastrula Formation req’s involution of cells at the site of the grey crescent (in frogs) Results in formation of three primitive germ layers Results in formation of notochord (which is mesodermal)
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Neurulation In humans, neurulation begins before gastrulation is complete Notochord induces differentiation of overlying ectoderm into neural precursor cells Neural plate - gives rise to the neural tube
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Figure 22.1 Neurulation in the mammalian embryo (Part 1)
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Figure 22.1 Neurulation in the mammalian embryo (Part 2)
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Neural tube comprises Floor plate - gives rise to inductive signals which cause ventral neural tube cells to become motor neurons Ventral neural tube Dorsal neural tube Roof plate – inductive signals Neural crest - gives rise to Sensory and autonomic ganglia Adrenal neurosecretory cells Melanocytes and some other non- neural tissues, inc cartilage and bone
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Figure 22.1 Neurulation in the mammalian embryo (Part 3)
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Figure 22.1 Neurulation in the mammalian embryo (Part 4)
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Figure 22.2 The neural crest 1 – sensory ganglia 2 – autonomic ganglia 3 – adrenal neurosecretory cells 4 – melanocytes, e.g.
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Molecular basis of neural induction How does the notochord induce formation of the neural tube? Signals secreted by the notochord modulate gene expression in overlying ectoderm. (Other tissues do, too.) Retinoic acid Retinoid receptors = transcription factors FGF Transforming GF, inc. BMP Sonic hedgehog Wnt
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Figure 22.3 Major inductive signaling pathways in vertebrate embryos (Part 1) TGF, RA noggin Shh, RA noggin, chordin BMPs Shh, noggin
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Figure 22.3 Major inductive signaling pathways in vertebrate embryos (Part 3)
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Figure 22.4
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course CHEM 2341 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Texas State.

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22Early+Brain+Development - Unit 4 Opener Early Brain...

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