ch9+1410+FA11.key

ch9+1410+FA11.key - States of Matter ! Solid ! Liquid ! Gas...

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! Solid ! Liquid ! Gas ! Plasma States of Matter
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! Has defnite volume ! Has defnite shape ! Molecules are held in specifc locations ! by electrical Forces ! vibrate about equilibrium positions ! Can be modeled as springs connecting molecules Solids
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! External forces can be applied to the solid and compress the material ! In the model, the springs would be compressed ! When the force is removed, the solid returns to its original shape and size ! This property is called elasticity More About Solids
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! Atoms have an ordered structure ! This example is salt ! Gray spheres represent Na + ions ! Green spheres represent Cl - ions Crystalline Solid
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! Atoms are arranged almost randomly ! Examples include glass Amorphous Solid
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! Has a defnite volume ! No defnite shape ! Exists at a higher temperature than solids ! The molecules “wander” through the liquid in a random Fashion ! The intermolecular Forces are not strong enough to keep the molecules in a fxed position Liquid
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! Has no defnite volume ! Has no defnite shape ! Molecules are in constant random motion ! The molecules exert only weak Forces on each other ! Average distance between molecules is large compared to the size oF the molecules Gas
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! Matter heated to a very high temperature ! Many of the electrons are freed from the nucleus ! Result is a collection of free, electrically charged ions ! Plasmas exist inside stars Plasma
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! The density of a substance of uniform composition is deFned as its mass per unit volume: ! Units are kg/m 3 (SI) or g/cm 3 (cgs) ! 1 g/cm 3 = 1000 kg/m 3 Density
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! The densities of most liquids and solids vary slightly with changes in temperature and pressure ! Densities of gases vary greatly with changes in temperature and pressure Density, cont.
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Ex: This is a continuing example we will use later. What is the mass of a 50x50x50 cm 3 cube of solid iron? ρ Fe =7 . 86 10 3 kg / m 3 ρ air =1 . 29kg / m 3 V =(0 . 50m) 3 =0 . 125m 3 m = ρ V m =(7 . 86 10 3 kg / m 3 )(0 . 125m 3 ) = 982 . 5kg ρ = m V
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! The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density to the density of water at 4° C ! The density of water at 4° C is 1000 kg/m 3 ! SpeciFc gravity is a unit-less ratio SpeciFc Gravity
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! The perpendicular component of a force acting over an area exerts a pressure on that area.
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course PHYS 1410 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

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ch9+1410+FA11.key - States of Matter ! Solid ! Liquid ! Gas...

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