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Mass Comm Final Review - REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM#3 COMM 245...

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REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM #3: COMM 245 Criticisms of advertising targeting children : 1) Creation of desires which cannot be fulfilled 2) Creates tension when parent says no 3) Children are taught an unrealistic view of the world through commercials Lenore Weitzman , content analysis of children’s books: Overwhelming majority of male characters in children’s books. Where there were female characters, they were passive and played submissive roles such as cooking, sewing ect. Gatekeeping (review): Gatekeeping roles are usually played by producing executives. They are in control of what news is allowed to air on their station. This is a very influential role. “Media people influencing messages en route” Agenda setting (review): The media doesn’t tell you what to think, they tell you what to think about. Gatekeepers control what types of stories are broadcast, therefore setting an agenda for the audience. Content analysis: researcher counts how many specific events occur in a medium within a given time. Children’s programs show a higher frequency of violence than adult programs with 7 incidents of violence an hour. 11 incidents of violence an hour on ABC family channel, 5 an hour on primetime TV Longitudinal study : involves repeated observations of the same thing over extended periods of time Parasocial relationship : It is common for adults to lose the line between fiction and reality the same way children do, in regards to celebrities and cartoon
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characters. Example: Character on “General Hospital” named “Julie” who was deciding whether or not to get an abortion began to receive mail from fans addressing the issue; these people should have been sending the mail to the writers. Social construction of reality : Some realities are based upon social expectations rather than realities. Society can give false meaning to things. George Gerbner’s “mean world syndrome.” Albert Bandura’s studies of effects of violent TV or film on children : Bobo doll studies, encouraged some children to watch violent movies then play with doll, children who watched the violent movie were more likely to beat up the doll Lefkowitz’ study of TV and adolescent aggression : interviewed a group of eight years olds and found that the group that watched more violent TV was more likely to act aggressively in the real world. When he interviewed the same boys ten years later, he found that the more violence a boy watched at eight years old, the more aggressively he would act at eighteen. 1) Children who were unpopular at age 8 were still unpopular at age 18 and watched more TV 2) The more teenagers liked violent programs, the more realistic they thought they were 3) Boys with lower IQ and lower socio-economic status were more likely to watch TV violence and be aggressive Eron & Huesmann—studies of TV viewing and adolescent aggression : 22 year study of 875 children found that frequency of TV viewing at age 8 predicted
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seriousness of crimes committed at 30 (controlled for base line aggression,
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