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Final Review - Matt Deis Peter Kolchin HIST 205 Final...

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Matt Deis Peter Kolchin HIST 205 5/20/11 Final Review Study Questions 1 2) Trace the development of political party systems from 1789 to 1861, noting the major struggles, policies and bases of support of the contending factions in each of the three systems. Federalists v. Republicans : 1790’s. Federalists in power for the first 12 years of U.S. History. George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and John Adams, all of whom were Federalists, were in favor of an active federal government, especially concerning its involvement in internal economic affairs, federal support for economic expansion, rule by the rich and well born, federal gov’t should pay the states debts from the revolutionary war. Hamilton proposed a National Bank to regulate currency and support commercial and industrial development by taxing the importation of rival goods. Republicans on the other hand, referred to themselves as supporters of the “yeoman farmer” and felt that through the use of agriculture, there would be no need for governmental interference. Prominent republican leaders included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. “Jeffersonian Republicans” opposed too strong a centralized government; they favored the French model over the British and portrayed federalists as aristocrats. 1796 was the last Federalist Presidential victory, after 1820, federalists virtually disintegrated: republicans adopted federalists policies, federalists did not take part in the war of 1812, republicans increased their appeal to “the people” Whig (Henry Clay) v. Democrats (Andrew Jackson). This party system was much more Democratic due to the expansion of full white manhood suffrage regardless of property qualifications. The Whigs were mostly made up of upper class politicians and manufacturers in the North. Whigs supported movements to increase industrialization and exploit the South Western United States of their cotton exports. Capitalism in the Northern economy controlled most of the Whig party. Whigs used the national gov’t to support development and supported high protective tariffs; most were Evangelical Protestants. Democratic Republicans held the support of the now increased size of the white land-owning population through their appeal to the common man. They saw themselves as heirs to the Jeffersonian Republicans by opposing high tariffs, opposing the second bank charter, and by favoring greater Presidential power. Jackson won the “Bank War.” Republicans v. Democrats. This party system came to fruition after the breaking of the Missouri Compromise. Republicans were anti-slavery and supported “free soil” (anti-slavery-expansion). Democrats were pro-slavery. Democratic party split into two wings after Stephen Douglas’ implementation of the Kansas-Nebraska Act which allowed for popular sovereignty in new territories. Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, won the election of 1860; this Republican victory is considered the straw that broke the camel’s back in terms of southern consideration of secession.
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