ecology exam 1

ecology exam 1 - Lecture 1 Definitions Ecology is the...

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Lecture 1: Definitions: Ecology- is the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environment (distribution and abundance) Doubling time- John Graunt, used 64 years to determine the population in 1662. Started at 3948 BC then doubled the initial population every 64 years. He calculated that it would double 93 times 2^93 which is about 100 million ppl/square cm of habitable land, which out outrageous. Concepts: Growth rate=birth rate-death rate: sir Ronald ross, found this out by working with malaria in mosquitos. history of ecology- 1. Hunters and gatherers, Europeans have survived others due to luck and some interesting ecological feedback. 2. John Graunt- limits of human population, doubling time. 3. Formal science of ecology starts in 1800s, many explorers started publishing work=broader patterns in natural history, describes description of natural selection. 4 . explorers left record of writings and collections. 5. Botanists led the way with vegetation maps and studying them. 6. Animal ecologists led to a more rigorous mathematical understanding of ecology, study of transmission of diseases. 7. 1950s concerns about human population and habitat destruction raised awareness. Case Studies: Growth of London - john graunt John Bartram - first American born natural historist. Explored SE of US including Florida. He collected specimens of plants and animals and was sent to a museum. Lecture 2 Terms: Population-a group of (interbreeding) individuals found in the same space or area at the same time. Population Growth Rate- dN/dt=birth-death. This is the slope Discrete growth-periods where everyone in population is doing the same thing Continuous Growth- constantly reproducing (humans, trees). It has overlapping generations. Fecundity- reproductive output under ideal conditions, limited by genetics, not the environment Fertility- the actual reproduction in a given environment. Note that is must be less or equal to the fecundity. Immigration- number of individuals that join the population per unit time Emigration- number of individuals that leave the population per unit time Demography-the study of the age structure and growth rate of populations * Per capita growth rate- r, how rapid it is growing per individual *Per capita birth rate- *Per capita death rate- r= per individual growth rate, how rapid its growing per individual. R=births- death+immigration-emigration.
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Ro=net growth rate Closed population- no immigration, no emigration, no movement Open population- movement, immigration and emigration. Concepts- Assumptions of Lincoln index : mark-recapture method. This is when it is almost impossible to count the entire population, can estimate the total density. Individuals (numbering M) are captured, marked, released. Assume they mix freely and completely with the rest of the population. Then capture some individuals again and count total number of individuals caught(n) and the number of those previously marked (x). N=nM/x
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