BOT3015 exam1 - Lecture 1Plants are important to us Oxygen...

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Lecture 1- Plants are important to us: Oxygen, food and fuel, useful compounds from spices to meds, environment, more Plant biologists and their contributions: Robert Hooke and cell biology- invented 1 st microscope Mendel and laws of inheritance Norman Borlaug and breeding the green revolution Barbara McClintock and transposable elements Origin of chloroplast and mitochondria- the endosymbiosis theory. Mitochondria came from heterotrophic bacteria and chloroplast came from autotrophic bacteria. Lecture 2- Different levels of classification Taxon- a group of organisms sharing similar traits (multiple) Ranks- kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species. Carl Linnaeus and the binomial system- laid foundation for current biological classification systems. Classification for plants is based off of reproductive structure 1 st name is the genus and the 2 nd name is the description The evolution of global classification Plants and animals Then Protista plants and animals Then prokaryotes and eukaryotes Then monera Protista plants fungi and animals finally archaebacteria and eubacteria and eukaryotes Systematics and phylogeny Systematics- the study of biological diversity and its evolutionary history Phylogeny- the evolutionary relationship among organisms Clade- a group of plants that possess a unique derived trait that reflects a common origin cladogram- the length of the line represents the distance between 2 clades Node- represents the point of time when 2 clades diverged The 3 domains of life- independent origin of photosynthetic organisms Lecture 3and 4- Angiosperms flowering plants Largest group of plants Most advanced: flowers for pollination, fruits for seed dispersal, double fertilization endosperm 2 major groups: monocots and dicots Dicot Monocot # Of cotyledons 2 1
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Root system Tap root Fibrous Leaf vein pattern Netlike Parallel Primary meristem Apical Apical and intercalary Flower parts 4-5 3 Primary vascular bundles In a ring Scattered Lecture3-basic flower parts come in whorls 1) Sepals-calyx, 2) petals-corolla, 3) stamens, 4) pistils Most flowers are hermaphroditic (have both male and female structures) Gametes are produced in ovary and anther -Female gamete (egg) made by megaspore in ovule Megaspore (egg) genesis: Megasporocyte- also called megaspore mother cell produces the female gametophyte through meiosis Development of female gametophyte: the 2n megaspore mother cell goes through meiosis 1 and gives haploid (1n) megaspores, goes through 3x mitosis to make more cells then 7x cytokinesis. Polar nuclei never become eggs. 7 cells and 8 nuclei in total. Male reproductive cell- microspore (pollen) genesis: Process- pollen mother cell (2n) goes through meiosis to give 1n tetrad pollen and separates to form pollen grains still 1n. Mature pollen- pollen grains wall contains proteins needed in species recognition-
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BOT3015 exam1 - Lecture 1Plants are important to us Oxygen...

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