Psychology2e-WEB_64tUsKd.pdf - Psychology 2e SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS ROSE M SPIELMAN FORMERLY OF QUINNIPIAC UNIVERSITY WILLIAM J JENKINS MERCER

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 2e SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS ROSE M. SPIELMAN, FORMERLY OF QUINNIPIAC UNIVERSITY WILLIAM J. JENKINS, MERCER UNIVERSITY MARILYN D. LOVETT, SPELMAN COLLEGE OpenStax Rice University 6100 Main Street MS-375 Houston, Texas 77005 To learn more about OpenStax, visit . Individual print copies and bulk orders can be purchased through our website. ©2020 Rice University. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Under this license, any user of this textbook or the textbook contents herein must provide proper attribution as follows: - - - - If you redistribute this textbook in a digital format (including but not limited to PDF and HTML), then you must retain on every page the following attribution: “Access for free at openstax.org.” If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: “Access for free at openstax.org.” If you redistribute part of this textbook, then you must retain in every digital format page view (including but not limited to PDF and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: “Access for free at openstax.org.” If you use this textbook as a bibliographic reference, please include in your citation. For questions regarding this licensing, please contact [email protected] Trademarks The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, OpenStax CNX logo, OpenStax Tutor name, Openstax Tutor logo, Connexions name, Connexions logo, Rice University name, and Rice University logo are not subject to the license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University. HARDCOVER BOOK ISBN-13 B&W PAPERBACK BOOK ISBN-13 DIGITAL VERSION ISBN-13 ORIGINAL PUBLICATION YEAR 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 978-1-975076-45-0 978-1-975076-44-3 978-1-951693-23-7 2020 OPENSTAX OpenStax provides free, peer-reviewed, openly licensed textbooks for introductory college and Advanced Placement® courses and low-cost, personalized courseware that helps students learn. A nonprofit ed tech initiative based at Rice University, we’re committed to helping students access the tools they need to complete their courses and meet their educational goals. RICE UNIVERSITY OpenStax, OpenStax CNX, and OpenStax Tutor are initiatives of Rice University. As a leading research university with a distinctive commitment to undergraduate education, Rice University aspires to path-breaking research, unsurpassed teaching, and contributions to the betterment of our world. It seeks to fulfill this mission by cultivating a diverse community of learning and discovery that produces leaders across the spectrum of human endeavor. PHILANTHROPIC SUPPORT OpenStax is grateful for our generous philanthropic partners, who support our vision to improve educational opportunities for all learners. Laura and John Arnold Foundation The Maxfield Foundation Arthur and Carlyse Ciocca Charitable Foundation Burt and Deedee McMurtry Ann and John Doerr Michelson 20MM Foundation Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation National Science Foundation Girard Foundation The Open Society Foundations Google Inc. Jumee Yhu and David E. Park III The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Brian D. Patterson USA-International Foundation Rusty and John Jaggers The Bill and Stephanie Sick Fund The Calvin K. Kazanjian Economics Foundation Robin and Sandy Stuart Foundation Charles Koch Foundation The Stuart Family Foundation Leon Lowenstein Foundation, Inc. Tammy and Guillermo Treviño new school year. new classes. new books. free books. new assignments. free app. new app. OpenStax + SE Get free textbooks for over 30 college courses in the free OpenStax + SE app. Download it now on the App Store or get it on Google Play. Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology . . . . . . 1.1 What Is Psychology? . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 History of Psychology . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Contemporary Psychology . . . . . . . 1.4 Careers in Psychology . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2: Psychological Research . . . . . . . 2.1 Why Is Research Important? . . . . . . 2.2 Approaches to Research . . . . . . . . 2.3 Analyzing Findings . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: Biopsychology . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Human Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System . . . . . . 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System . . . . . . 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord . . . . . . . 3.5 The Endocrine System . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4: States of Consciousness . . . . . . . 4.1 What Is Consciousness? . . . . . . . . 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep . . . . . . . 4.3 Stages of Sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders . . . . . 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse . . . . . . . 4.6 Other States of Consciousness . . . . . Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception . . . . . . 5.1 Sensation versus Perception . . . . . . 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths . . . . . . . . 5.3 Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 The Other Senses . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception . . . . Chapter 6: Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 What Is Learning? . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Classical Conditioning . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Operant Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling) . . . Chapter 7: Thinking and Intelligence . . . . . . . 7.1 What Is Cognition? . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity? . 7.5 Measures of Intelligence . . . . . . . . 7.6 The Source of Intelligence . . . . . . . Chapter 8: Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 How Memory Functions . . . . . . . . 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory 8.3 Problems with Memory . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory . . . . . . . Chapter 9: Lifespan Development . . . . . . . . 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 8 9 19 27 37 38 44 52 63 75 76 83 89 92 104 115 116 122 124 129 134 143 155 156 160 163 171 175 179 191 192 193 203 214 225 226 230 234 241 245 252 263 264 272 276 286 295 296 9.2 Lifespan Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 Stages of Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Death and Dying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 10: Emotion and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Hunger and Eating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Sexual Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 11: Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 What Is Personality? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney . . . . . 11.4 Learning Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Humanistic Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6 Biological Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.7 Trait Theorists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality . . . . . . . . . . . 11.9 Personality Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 12: Social Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 What Is Social Psychology? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Self-presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 Prosocial Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 13: Industrial-Organizational Psychology . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? . . . . . 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design . . . . Chapter 14: Stress, Lifestyle, and Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 What Is Stress? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Stressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Stress and Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 Regulation of Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders . . . . 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Anxiety Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders . . . . . . . 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.7 Mood Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.8 Schizophrenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.9 Dissociative Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.10 Disorders in Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.11 Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present . . . . . . . . 16.2 Types of Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This OpenStax book is available for free at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 310 331 341 342 348 354 362 379 380 383 389 395 399 400 401 406 408 421 422 428 432 438 446 452 455 471 472 481 493 503 511 512 522 528 541 548 563 564 568 571 575 581 585 588 598 603 604 611 629 630 636 16.3 16.4 16.5 Index . . Treatment Modalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 652 655 759 This OpenStax book is available for free at Preface 1 Preface Welcome to Psychology 2e, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost. ABOUT OPENSTAX OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012, and our library has since scaled to over 35 books for college and AP® courses used by hundreds of thousands of students. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being piloted in college courses throughout the country. Through our partnerships with philanthropic foundations and our alliance with other educational resource organizations, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed. ABOUT OPENSTAX RESOURCES Customization Psychology 2e is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors. Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus, in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book. Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit the Instructor Resources section of your book page on openstax.org for more information. Art Attribution in Psychology 2e In Psychology 2e, most art contains attribution to its title, creator or rights holder, host platform, and license within the caption. Because the art is openly licensed, anyone may reuse the art as long as they provide the same attribution to its original source. To maximize readability and content flow, some art does not include attribution in the text. If you reuse art from Psychology 2e that does not have attribution provided, use the following attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license. Errata All OpenStax textbooks undergo a rigorous review process. However, like any professional-grade textbook, errors sometimes occur. Since our books are web based, we can make updates periodically when deemed pedagogically necessary. If you have a correction to suggest, submit it through the link on your book page on openstax.org. Subject matter experts review all errata suggestions. OpenStax is committed to remaining transparent about all updates, so you will also find a list of past errata changes on your book page on openstax.org. Format You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through openstax.org, and for a low cost in print. 2 Preface ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY 2E Psychology 2e is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for the single-semester introduction to psychology course. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of core concepts, grounded in both classic studies and current and emerging research. The text also includes coverage of the DSM-5 in examinations of psychological disorders. Psychology 2e incorporates discussions that reflect the diversity within the discipline, as well as the diversity of cultures and communities across the globe. Coverage and scope The first edition of Psychology has been used by thousands of faculty and hundreds of thousands of students since its publication in 2015. OpenStax mined our adopters’ extensive and helpful feedback to identify the most significant revision needs while maintaining the organization that many instructors had incorporated into their courses. Specific surveys, pre-revision reviews, and customization analysis, as well as analytical data from OpenStax partners and online learning environments, all aided in planning the revision. The result is a book that thoroughly treats psychology’s foundational concepts while adding current and meaningful coverage in specific areas. Psychology 2e retains its manageable scope and contains ample features to draw learners into the discipline. Structurally, the textbook remains similar to the first edition, with no chapter reorganization and very targeted changes at the section level. Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology Chapter 2: Psychological Research Chapter 3: Biopsychology Chapter 4: States of Consciousness Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception Chapter 6: Learning Chapter 7: Thinking and Intelligence Chapter 8: Memory Chapter 9: Lifespan Development Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion Chapter 11: Personality Chapter 12: Social Psychology Chapter 13: Industrial-Organizational Psychology Chapter 14: Stress, Lifestyle, and Health Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Chapter 16: Therapy and Treatment CHANGES TO THE SECOND EDITION OpenStax only undertakes second editions when significant modifications to the text are necessary. In the case of Psychology 2e, user feedback indicated that we needed to focus on a few key areas, which we have done in the following ways. Content revisions for clarity, accuracy, and currency The revision plan varied by chapter based on need. Some chapters were significantly updated for conceptual coverage, research-informed data, and clearer language. In other chapters, the revisio...
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