14 Genetics

14 Genetics - GENETICS The Science of Heredity TFTD:...

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GENETICS The Science of Heredity
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TFTD: Genetics Genetics . Noun. Etymology: Greek, from γένεσις ( genesis ) meaning origin. 1 : The science of heredity and variation of organisms
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Mendel Gregor Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits in a discrete manner He worked with pea plants and crossed them to observe variations in form and color
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Heredity What Mendel didn’t know: The basic units of inheritance are called genes Genes are sections of chromosomes, made up of DNA (or RNA – viruses)
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DNA: Structure DNA: a sequence of nucleotides (base, sugar, phosphate) There are 4 types of nucleotide bases (A = adenine, T = thymine, C = cytosine and G = guanine) Bases pair up (A to T &
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Gene The sequence of nucleotides is the genetic information organisms inherit o So a gene is a specific sequence and length of base pairs (A,T, & C,G) A gene might look like: ATAACGTCCGATGGCCTCATAGG AA
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Chromosomes The collection of genes (20-25,000 in humans) are housed in chromosomes Most animals are diploid (somatic cells have two sets of chromosomes)
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Chromosomes Structure and packaging
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Heredity: Replication DNA occurs as a double strand in a helix type spiral ( Watson & Crick – 1962 Nobel prize ) Each strand is a template for creating a new partner strand o This is the physical method for making copies of genes that can be inherited
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DNA Replication
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DNA nucleotides in a gene are translated by cells to
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PPSC 110 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '04 term at Cal Poly.

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14 Genetics - GENETICS The Science of Heredity TFTD:...

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