natural_sciences - Turfgrass Culture ORH3222C Section 7982...

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Turfgrass Culture, ORH3222C Section 7982 and Grad. – Res. And Develop. in Turfgrass Sci. HOS6523 Section 5819 University of Florida - Davie http://grove.ufl.edu/~turf/turfcult/ Philip Busey, [email protected] 954-579-3932 (cell) September 19, 2009 Natural Sciences Review Science is currently viewed to be the system of acquiring knowledge by the scientific method and the body of knowledge thus acquired. Science as we know it is thus generally the same as what was called “natural science” based on rigorous and experimental methods, in contrast to social science which was based largely on observation and interpretation a posteriori, that is, after the fact, and in contrast to formal sciences such as mathematics and logic. All areas of science may be rigorous and systematic; however only natural science has the highest level of confidence and ability to formally test hypotheses in some instances relatively free of bias and subjectivity. Since the advent of behavioral sociology, subjects such as economics and sociology have become more truly scientific in their approach. Also, natural sciences rely heavily on mathematics in measurements and interpretations, including the area of applied mathematics called statistics. Science, or the natural sciences, includes two general areas, physical sciences (items 1 to 4, below) and biology 1. Physics – matter and motion including energy, mass, force, motion, charge, and gravity, including the nucleus and subatomic particles, radiation, classical mechanics, electricity, the electromagnetic spectrum, and atoms and elements 2. Chemistry – matter as substances, including compositions and transformations of matter involving the other shell of electrons, compounds, and molecules and compounds 3. Earth sciences – geology, oceanography, climate, meteorology, soil science 4. Astronomy – stars, planets, origins of the universe 5. Biology – the study of living organisms including genetics Science can be contrasted to engineering and technology, which are considered applications of science, engineering fields including design and testing, and technology, the most fundamental level of technique and management. Thus a scientist would measure the physics and biology of cutting a grass leaf blade, an engineer would study the kinetics of turf clippings discharge and would design a better rotary mower, and a technician would cut the grass. Plant sciences including agronomy, horticulture, and forestry, are not entirely science but
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Turfgrass Culture 2009 - Univ. Florida – Davie – Chemistry Review Page 2 include a range of activities from science (e.g., physiology and genetics) to engineering (e.g., crop production and plant breeding) to technology (farming and nursery crop production). Science including physical sciences cannot be considered except in the context of the scientific method and the scientific paper. The scientific method is the gathering of evidence through observation and experimentation and the testing of hypotheses. A
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