The Two Sample Location Problem
With Independent Samples
4.1 Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
This test was first published by Wilcoxon in 1945. That is why some authors refer to this test as the
Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test (because it is based on the sum of ranks). Later, in 1947, Mann and
Whitney published the same test with more detail and some authors refer to it as the Wilcoxon,
Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test.
We have a random sample of m observations from population 1, denoted by X
, • • •, X
random sample of n observations from population 2, denoted by Y
• •, Y
The total number of observations is N = m + n. Without loss of generality we take
n < m
: The observations X
, • • •, X
are a random sample from population 1, thus they are
of one another and have the same distribution. The other sample, Y
, • • •,
are a random sample from population 2, so they also are
of one another
and have the same distribution.
: The two samples are mutually independent of one another.
Population 1 and population 2 are both continuous populations.
has the same distribution as X
+ ∆ for all i
= 1, • • •, m and j = 1, • ••, n.
The parameter ∆ is the
An Interpretation of the Parameter
in the Two Sample Location Problem
• The parameter ∆ denotes the amount of shift, i.e. the separation between the two
populations. [Assumption A4 means the two populations have the same distribution, they
differ only in location.]
The tables that are contained in the text assume that
The sample size from population 2, n < m, the sample size from population 1.
is the one from which the
of N = m + n
X- and Y-values from smallest to largest.