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Lecture 1 - Lecture1 Thedorbitals Example4 if n=4 l = 0 or...

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Atomic Energies and Periodicity  - Lecture 1
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The d-orbitals
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Example 4 if n=4, l = 0 or 1 or 2 or l = 3 (an f-orbital) m l = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 or 3 (i.e. 7 f-orbitals)
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The f-orbitals
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spin, m s m s = +1/2 or -1/2 (up or down) Maximum two electrons per orbital, one spin up, one spin down The fourth quantum number
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n 1 0 l n-1 -l m l l m s = +1/2 or -1/2 1 type of s orbital 3 types of p orbital 5 types of d orbital 7 types of f orbital Review
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Pauli’s Exclusion Principle: no two electrons in an single atom have the same four quantum numbers
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Filling Orbitals with Electrons “Aufbau” - filling up put two electrons in each type of each orbital (one of each spin)
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Filling Orbitals with Electrons Helium: two electrons in the 1s orbital electronic configuration is 1s 2 (first shell complete)
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Filling Orbitals with Electrons Lithium: two electrons in the 1s orbital, then one in the 2s orbital electronic configuration is 1s 2 2s 1 or [He] 2s 1
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Filling Orbitals with Electrons Beryllium: 1s 2 2s 2 or [He]2s 2
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